4,794 research outputs found

    Phenomena Simulation for Heavy Doping and Surface Recombination Velocity

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    The theoretical models now available that characterize heavily doped (highly conducting) regions in silicon are survyed. Analytical and numerical approaches that determine the influence of such regions on the conversion efficiency of solar cells are examined. Although dilutely doped silicon is well characterized except for some disagreement about optical absorption coefficients, what exists now for heavily doped silicon and its interplay with adjoining regions is an incomplete theory in which not all contributers to transport, recombination, generation, and trapping are defined. Further, the parameters relating to these mechanisms and their values as determined by experiment are subject to various interpretations. The characterization of heavily doped silicon is treated not as a theory but rather as an imperfectly articulated and incompletely formalized body of experience. This view is intended to help point the way toward the attainment of a more complete of heavily doped silicon and thereby toward more informed designs of solar cells. Because computer programs constitute tools both for design and for estimating performance limits, the review includes some remarks pertinent to existing and developing programs

    Heavy doping effects in high efficiency silicon solar cells

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    Several of the key parameters describing the heavily doped regions of silicon solar cells are examined. The experimentally determined energy gap narrowing and minority carrier diffusivity and mobility are key factors in the investigation

    Is the United States Falling Apart?

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    This is a preprint (author's original) version of the article published in Daedalus 126(2):183-209. The final version of the article can be found at http://www.jstor.org/stable/20027433 (login required to view content). The version made available in Digital Common was supplied by the author.Author's Origina

    Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells

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    Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described

    Heavy doping effects in high efficiency silicon solar cells

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    The use of a (silicon)/(heavily doped polysilicon)/(metal) structure to replace the conventional high-low junction (or back-surface-field, BSF) structure of silicon solar cells was examined. The results of an experimental study designed to explore both qualitatively and quantitatively the mechanism of the improved current gain in bipolar transistors with polysilicon emitter contact are presented. A reciprocity theorem is presented that relates the short circuit current of a device, induced by a carrier generation source, to the minority carrier Fermi level in the dark. A method for accurate measurement of minority-carrier diffusion coefficients in silicon is described

    Design of high efficiency HLE solar cells for space and terrestrial applications

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    A first-order analysis of HLE cells is presented for both beginning-of-life and end-of-life conditions. Based on this analysis and on experimentally observed values for material parameters. Design approaches for both space and terrestrial cells are presented. The approaches result in specification of doping levels, junction depths, and surface conditions. The proposed structures are projected to have both high V sub OC and high J sub SC

    Unified constitutive material models for nonlinear finite-element structural analysis

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    Unified constitutive material models were developed for structural analyses of aircraft gas turbine engine components with particular application to isotropic materials used for high-pressure stage turbine blades and vanes. Forms or combinations of models independently proposed by Bodner and Walker were considered. These theories combine time-dependent and time-independent aspects of inelasticity into a continuous spectrum of behavior. This is in sharp contrast to previous classical approaches that partition inelastic strain into uncoupled plastic and creep components. Predicted stress-strain responses from these models were evaluated against monotonic and cyclic test results for uniaxial specimens of two cast nickel-base alloys, B1900+Hf and Rene' 80. Previously obtained tension-torsion test results for Hastelloy X alloy were used to evaluate multiaxial stress-strain cycle predictions. The unified models, as well as appropriate algorithms for integrating the constitutive equations, were implemented in finite-element computer codes

    Physics of heavily doped silicon and solar-cell parameter measurement

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    A study of the physics of heavily doped silicon and solar cell parameter measurement was undertaken. The parameters investigated were energy gap, lifetime, recombination velocity, diffusivity, mobility and if N or P is high

    An Application of Hierarchicalism to Anencephalic Newborns

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    Heavy doping effects in high efficiency silicon solar cells

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    A model for bandgap shrinkage in semiconductors is developed and applied to silicon. A survey of earlier experiments, and of new ones, give an agreement between the model and experiments on n- and p-type silicon which is good as far as transport measurements in the 300 K range. The discrepancies between theory and experiment are no worse than the discrepancies between the experimental results of various authors. It also gives a good account of recent, optical determinations of band gap shrinkage at 5 K
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