2,951 research outputs found

    Higher-order spin effects in the dynamics of compact binaries II. Radiation field

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    Motivated by the search for gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes, we investigate the gravitational radiation field of point particles with spins within the framework of the multipolar-post-Newtonian wave generation formalism. We compute: (i) the spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects in the binary's mass and current quadrupole moments one post-Newtonian (1PN) order beyond the dominant effect, (ii) the SO contributions in the gravitational-wave energy flux and (iii) the secular evolution of the binary's orbital phase up to 2.5PN order. Crucial ingredients for obtaining the 2.5PN contribution in the orbital phase are the binary's energy and the spin precession equations, derived in paper I of this series. These results provide more accurate gravitational-wave templates to be used in the data analysis of rapidly rotating Kerr-type black-hole binaries with the ground-based detectors LIGO, Virgo, GEO 600 and TAMA300, and the space-based detector LISA.Comment: includes the correction of an erratum to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Gravitational waves from black hole binary inspiral and merger: The span of third post-Newtonian effective-one-body templates

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    We extend the description of gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes during the final stages of inspiral and merger by introducing in the third post-Newtonian (3PN) effective-one-body (EOB) templates seven new ``flexibility'' parameters that affect the two-body dynamics and gravitational radiation emission. The plausible ranges of these flexibility parameters, notably the parameter characterising the fourth post-Newtonian effects in the dynamics, are estimated. Using these estimates, we show that the currently available standard 3PN bank of EOB templates does ``span'' the space of signals opened up by all the flexibility parameters, in that their maximized mutual overlaps are larger than 96.5%. This confirms the effectualness of 3PN EOB templates for the detection of binary black holes in gravitational-wave data from interferometric detectors. The possibility to drastically reduce the number of EOB templates using a few ``universal'' phasing functions is suggested.Comment: 23 pages, 3 figures, 4 tables, with revtex4, Minor clarifications, Final published versio

    Higher harmonics increase LISA's mass reach for supermassive black holes

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    Current expectations on the signal to noise ratios and masses of supermassive black holes which the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) can observe are based on using in matched filtering only the dominant harmonic of the inspiral waveform at twice the orbital frequency. Other harmonics will affect the signal-to-noise ratio of systems currently believed to be observable by LISA. More significantly, inclusion of other harmonics in our matched filters would mean that more massive systems that were previously thought to be {\it not} visible in LISA should be detectable with reasonable SNRs. Our estimates show that we should be able to significantly increase the mass reach of LISA and observe the more commonly occurring supermassive black holes of masses 108M.\sim 10^8M_\odot. More specifically, with the inclusion of all known harmonics LISA will be able to observe even supermassive black hole coalescences with total mass 108M(109M)\sim 10^8 M_\odot (10^9M_\odot) (and mass-ratio 0.1) for a low frequency cut-off of 104Hz10^{-4}{\rm Hz} (105Hz)(10^{-5}{\rm Hz}) with an SNR up to 60\sim 60 (30)(\sim 30) at a distance of 3 Gpc. This is important from the astrophysical viewpoint since observational evidence for the existence of black holes in this mass range is quite strong and binaries containing such supermassive black holes will be inaccessible to LISA if one uses as detection templates only the dominant harmonic.Comment: minor corrections mad

    Third post-Newtonian dynamics of compact binaries: Equations of motion in the center-of-mass frame

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    The equations of motion of compact binary systems and their associated Lagrangian formulation have been derived in previous works at the third post-Newtonian (3PN) approximation of general relativity in harmonic coordinates. In the present work we investigate the binary's relative dynamics in the center-of-mass frame (center of mass located at the origin of the coordinates). We obtain the 3PN-accurate expressions of the center-of-mass positions and equations of the relative binary motion. We show that the equations derive from a Lagrangian (neglecting the radiation reaction), from which we deduce the conserved center-of-mass energy and angular momentum at the 3PN order. The harmonic-coordinates center-of-mass Lagrangian is equivalent, {\it via} a contact transformation of the particles' variables, to the center-of-mass Hamiltonian in ADM coordinates that is known from the post-Newtonian ADM-Hamiltonian formalism. As an application we investigate the dynamical stability of circular binary orbits at the 3PN order.Comment: 31 pages, to appear in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Gravitational radiation reaction in the equations of motion of compact binaries to 3.5 post-Newtonian order

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    We compute the radiation reaction force on the orbital motion of compact binaries to the 3.5 post-Newtonian (3.5PN) approximation, i.e. one PN order beyond the dominant effect. The method is based on a direct PN iteration of the near-zone metric and equations of motion of an extended isolated system, using appropriate ``asymptotically matched'' flat-space-time retarded potentials. The formalism is subsequently applied to binary systems of point particles, with the help of the Hadamard self-field regularisation. Our result is the 3.5PN acceleration term in a general harmonic coordinate frame. Restricting the expression to the centre-of-mass frame, we find perfect agreement with the result derived in a class of coordinate systems by Iyer and Will using the energy and angular momentum balance equations.Comment: 28 pages, references added, to appear in Classical and Quantum Gravit

    Post-Newtonian approximation for isolated systems calculated by matched asymptotic expansions

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    Two long-standing problems with the post-Newtonian approximation for isolated slowly-moving systems in general relativity are: (i) the appearance at high post-Newtonian orders of divergent Poisson integrals, casting a doubt on the soundness of the post-Newtonian series; (ii) the domain of validity of the approximation which is limited to the near-zone of the source, and prevents one, a priori, from incorporating the condition of no-incoming radiation, to be imposed at past null infinity. In this article, we resolve the problem (i) by iterating the post-Newtonian hierarchy of equations by means of a new (Poisson-type) integral operator that is free of divergencies, and the problem (ii) by matching the post-Newtonian near-zone field to the exterior field of the source, known from previous work as a multipolar-post-Minkowskian expansion satisfying the relevant boundary conditions at infinity. As a result, we obtain an algorithm for iterating the post-Newtonian series up to any order, and we determine the terms, present in the post-Newtonian field, that are associated with the gravitational-radiation reaction onto an isolated slowly-moving matter system.Comment: 61 pages, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Gravitational-Wave Inspiral of Compact Binary Systems to 7/2 Post-Newtonian Order

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    The inspiral of compact binaries, driven by gravitational-radiation reaction, is investigated through 7/2 post-Newtonian (3.5PN) order beyond the quadrupole radiation. We outline the derivation of the 3.5PN-accurate binary's center-of-mass energy and emitted gravitational flux. The analysis consistently includes the relativistic effects in the binary's equations of motion and multipole moments, as well as the contributions of tails, and tails of tails, in the wave zone. However the result is not fully determined because of some physical incompleteness, present at the 3PN order, of the model of point-particle and the associated Hadamard-type self-field regularization. The orbital phase, whose prior knowledge is crucial for searching and analyzing the inspiral signal, is computed from the standard energy balance argument.Comment: 12 pages, version which includes the correction of an Erratum to be published in Phys. Rev. D (2005

    On the structure of the post-Newtonian expansion in general relativity

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    In the continuation of a preceding work, we derive a new expression for the metric in the near zone of an isolated matter system in post-Newtonian approximations of general relativity. The post-Newtonian metric, a solution of the field equations in harmonic coordinates, is formally valid up to any order, and is cast in the form of a particular solution of the wave equation, plus a specific homogeneous solution which ensures the asymptotic matching to the multipolar expansion of the gravitational field in the exterior of the system. The new form provides some insights on the structure of the post-Newtonian expansion in general relativity and the gravitational radiation reaction terms therein.Comment: 22 pages, to appear in Phys. Rev.

    Testing post-Newtonian theory with gravitational wave observations

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    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) will observe supermassive black hole binary mergers with amplitude signal-to-noise ratio of several thousands. We investigate the extent to which such observations afford high-precision tests of Einstein's gravity. We show that LISA provides a unique opportunity to probe the non-linear structure of post-Newtonian theory both in the context of general relativity and its alternatives.Comment: 9 pages, 2 figure

    The Statistical Mechanics of Horizons and Black Hole Thermodynamics

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    Although we know that black holes are characterized by a temperature and an entropy, we do not yet have a satisfactory microscopic ``statistical mechanical'' explanation for black hole thermodynamics. I describe a new approach that attributes the thermodynamic properties to ``would-be gauge'' degrees of freedom that become dynamical on the horizon. For the (2+1)-dimensional black hole, this approach gives the correct entropy. (Talk given at the Pacific Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology, Seoul, February 1996.)Comment: 11 pages, LaTe
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