12 research outputs found

    Small Grain Disease and Insect Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of small grain diseases and insect pests were conducted in Vermont, New York and Massachusetts during the 2017 growing season. Pests were scouted on seven Vermont farm locations in the towns of Alburgh, Berlin, Bridport, North Ferrisburgh, North Troy, Shelburne, and Shoreham, as well as in Essex, New York and Northfield, Massachusetts. Winter and spring wheat (heirloom and commercially available), as well as spring barley and spelt, were scouted between spike emergence and flowering, and again at the soft dough growth stage. Disease and insect samples were taken and identified with assistance from the University of Vermont (UVM) Plant Diagnostic Clinic

    Dry Bean Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of dry bean pests was conducted on farms throughout Vermont during the 2016 season. Plant diseases and insect pests were scouted on five Vermont farm locations in the towns of Alburgh, Cambridge, Danby, Glover, and North Ferrisburg. Unknown disease and insect samples were taken and identified with assistance from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Laboratory (PDC)

    Status of IPM Practice Adoption in Vermont Apple Orchards in 2017

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    Apples are among the most important agricultural crops produced in Vermont. Despite research on and advances in IPM implementation in northeastern U.S. apple systems, pesticide applications remain a primary practice. Adoption of IPM implementation by Vermont apple growers was evaluated in a 2017 survey. Questions covered topics including farm demographics, self-reporting of IPM knowledge and status, relative importance of arthropod posts and diseases, practices that impact pollinators and crop pollination, use of electronic IPM decision support systems, scouting practices used in orchards, and tolerance of pest damage on fruit sold to alternative markets. Respondents reported apple scab (Venturia inaequalis ((Cooke) Wint.) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora (Burrill)) as their most important diseases and apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)) and codling moth (Cydia pomonella (L.)) insect pests of concern. A mean 10.9 and 5.7 fungicide and insecticide applications were made to manage pests and diseases. Growers reported high adoption of pollinator protection practices, and over half of respondents reported reliance of wild pollinators. All respondents used the regional NEWA decision support system and rated its usefulness highly overall. However, on-farm pest monitoring programs showed lower levels of adoption, and respondents indicated a lack of comfort with protocols for monitoring certain key pests. Survey response information may be useful in tailoring educational and outreach materials to improve IPM practice adoption and reduce grower risk

    The efficacy and non-target impacts of an organic disease management system containing biostimulants compared with two sulfur-based systems on four apple cultivars in Vermont

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    Disease management in organic apple orchards in Vermont is focused on controlling diseases with sulfur fungicides. The objective of this two year study was to evaluate the target and non-target effects of an organic disease management system containing agricultural biostimulants compared to two sulfur-based systems on foliar and fruit diseases, pest and beneficial arthropods, tree growth, yield and fruit quality on four cultivars, `Ginger Gold\u27, `Honeycrisp\u27 and `Liberty\u27 and `Zestar!\u27. Trees were arranged in a complete randomized design of five three-tree replications in a certified organic orchard. The two sulfur-based systems differed in the number of applications; in the third system, sulfur was replaced with biostimulants including pure neem oil, liquid fish, an activated microbial inoculant plus equisetum and stinging nettle teas. Each biostimulant application also included kelp meal, unsulfured organic molasses and yucca extract emulsifier. The biostimulant system did not successfully manage apple scab and rust diseases as well as the sulfur-based fungicide systems, and had variable results with other diseases. No differences were observed among the three systems in tree growth parameters; however, the length of the study may not have been sufficient to determine effects. Differences in the incidence of disease among the three systems were reflected in extrapolated figures for gross income per hectare which takes into account fruit yield and quality. In the higher fruit-bearing year of the study, it was estimated that the gross income per hectare of the biostimulant system would be significantly lower than the reduced-sulfur system and the full-sulfur system by at least 5,800and5,800 and 12,000, respectively. In that same year, it is estimated that the full-sulfur system would have generated approximately $6,500 more gross income per hectare than the reduced-sulfur system suggesting the number of sulfur sprays can influence fruit quality and income. The use of the agricultural biostimulants had very limited non-target effects and when present, they were beneficial in suppressing insect pest incidence and/or damage on foliage compared to one or both of the sulfur-based fungicide systems. However, many insect pests or their damage were not observed on the foliage or had incidence of less than 1% in any of the systems. The biostimulant system did appear to suppress European red mites in both years compared to both sulfur-based systems when data were averaged across cultivars. On fruit, no differences in non-target impacts on arthropod pests were observed among the three systems except for surface-feeding Lepidoptera and San Jose scale damage. In a separate phytophagous mite study on the cultivar `Zestar!\u27 leaf samples were evaluated for the number of motile phytophagous mites every 14 days from 1 July through 26 August each year. When there were differences, the biostimulant system had less mite incidence per leaf than one or both of the sulfur-based systems in both years. The difference in the number of sulfur sprays did not have a major effect on the mite populations. In summary, the use of the biostimulant system resulted in insufficient disease management which led to lower estimated gross income compared to the sulfur-based systems. These results show more research and further evaluation of new organic disease management tools, including the use of agricultural biostimulants, are necessary before growers consider replacing the use of standard sulfur fungicides for disease management in Vermont orchards

    On-Farm New England Hemp Pest & Disease Scouting Report

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    A survey of arthropod pests and disease was conducted on farms throughout New England and New York during the 2020 field season in order to qualify the species composition of arthropod and disease pest on industrial hemp. Hemp is a non-psychoactive variety of cannabis sativa L. The crop is one of historical importance in the U.S. and reemerging in worldwide importance as manufacturers seek hemp as a renewable and sustainable resource for a wide variety of consumer and industrial products. Today, industrial hemp is re-emerging as a locally grown product in the U.S. There is little data on pest and diseases of industrial hemp in New England and New York, and this survey was intended to help identify common pests that growers may encounter. Eighteen industrial hemp farms participated in the scouting program, which allowed growers to develop scouting schedules and become effective in disease and arthropod identification and management leading to higher quality crops

    Northeast Organic Small Grain Disease and Insect Pest Scouting Report

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    A survey of small grain diseases and insect pests were conducted in Vermont, Maine, New York, and Massachusetts during the 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. The purpose of scouting was to determine what insect pests and plant diseases are prevalent in organic small grain production in the Northeast

    Effect of aliskiren on post-discharge outcomes among diabetic and non-diabetic patients hospitalized for heart failure: insights from the ASTRONAUT trial

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    Aims The objective of the Aliskiren Trial on Acute Heart Failure Outcomes (ASTRONAUT) was to determine whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, would improve post-discharge outcomes in patients with hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) with reduced ejection fraction. Pre-specified subgroup analyses suggested potential heterogeneity in post-discharge outcomes with aliskiren in patients with and without baseline diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods and results ASTRONAUT included 953 patients without DM (aliskiren 489; placebo 464) and 662 patients with DM (aliskiren 319; placebo 343) (as reported by study investigators). Study endpoints included the first occurrence of cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 and 12 months, all-cause death within 6 and 12 months, and change from baseline in N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) at 1, 6, and 12 months. Data regarding risk of hyperkalaemia, renal impairment, and hypotension, and changes in additional serum biomarkers were collected. The effect of aliskiren on cardiovascular death or HHF within 6 months (primary endpoint) did not significantly differ by baseline DM status (P = 0.08 for interaction), but reached statistical significance at 12 months (non-DM: HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64-0.99; DM: HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.91-1.47; P = 0.03 for interaction). Risk of 12-month all-cause death with aliskiren significantly differed by the presence of baseline DM (non-DM: HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.94; DM: HR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.15-2.33; P < 0.01 for interaction). Among non-diabetics, aliskiren significantly reduced NT-proBNP through 6 months and plasma troponin I and aldosterone through 12 months, as compared to placebo. Among diabetic patients, aliskiren reduced plasma troponin I and aldosterone relative to placebo through 1 month only. There was a trend towards differing risk of post-baseline potassium 鈮6 mmol/L with aliskiren by underlying DM status (non-DM: HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.71-1.93; DM: HR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42; P = 0.07 for interaction). Conclusion This pre-specified subgroup analysis from the ASTRONAUT trial generates the hypothesis that the addition of aliskiren to standard HHF therapy in non-diabetic patients is generally well-tolerated and improves post-discharge outcomes and biomarker profiles. In contrast, diabetic patients receiving aliskiren appear to have worse post-discharge outcomes. Future prospective investigations are needed to confirm potential benefits of renin inhibition in a large cohort of HHF patients without D

    Disease Susceptibility of Interspecific Cold-Hardy Grape Cultivars in Northeastern U.S.A

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    Susceptibility to diseases of economically important grapes is critical to the evaluation of germplasm recommended for commercial production and for the development of sustainable production systems. In 2018鈥2019, the cold-hardy grape cultivars including 鈥楤rianna鈥, 鈥楥rimson Pearl鈥, 鈥業tasca鈥, 鈥楲ouise Swenson鈥, 鈥楳arechal Foch鈥, 鈥楳arquette鈥 鈥楶etite Pearl鈥, 鈥楽t. Pepin鈥, and 鈥榁erona鈥 were evaluated on non-treated vines for susceptibility to downy mildew, powdery mildew, black rot, anthracnose, Phomopsis leaf spot and fruit rot, and Botrytis bunch rot. No cultivars were consistently disease-free, and all exhibited some degree of black rot and powdery mildew infection. Relative susceptibility to disease was not consistent across both years, but 鈥楤rianna鈥 had greater incidence of black rot and 鈥楲ouise Swenson鈥 showed lower incidence of powdery mildew in both years. The relatively new cultivars 鈥楥rimson Pearl鈥 and 鈥榁erona鈥 exhibited comparatively moderate disease susceptibility overall. Growers typically manage diseases with fungicides on commercial farms, so cultivar susceptibility is just one component of a sustainable pest management and production system