8,818 research outputs found

    Prandtl number of lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook fluid

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    The lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook modeled fluid has an unchangeable unit Prandtl number. A simple method is introduced in this letter to formulate a flexible Prandtl number for the modeled fluid. The effectiveness was demonstrated by numerical simulations of the Couette flow.Comment: 4 pages, uuencoded postscript fil

    Collapse modes of structures under strong motions of earthquake

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    Under strong motion earthquakes, structures receive various types of damage. The most fatal damage is the loss of lateral strengths of a structure. The loss of lateral resistance causes a total collapse of the structure due to the P-d effect associated with the lateral displacements and the gravity loading. To eliminate such a collapse mode, to introduce into the ordinary stiff structure a flexible element which remains elastic is very effective. The flexible-stiff mixed structure can behave preferably in many aspects under strong earthquakes

    A Hierarchical Relationship between the Fluence Spectra and CME Kinematics in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Radio Perspective

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    We report on further evidence that solar energetic particles are organized by the kinematic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)[1]. In particular, we focus on the starting frequency of type II bursts, which is related to the distance from the Sun where the radio emission starts. We find that the three groups of solar energetic particle (SEP) events known to have distinct values of CME initial acceleration, also have distinct average starting frequencies of the associated type II bursts. SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE) have the highest starting frequency (107 MHz), while those associated with filament eruption (FE) in quiescent regions have the lowest starting frequency (22 MHz); regular SEP events have intermediate starting frequency (81 MHz). Taking the onset time of type II bursts as the time of shock formation, we determine the shock formation heights measured from the Sun center. We find that the shocks form on average closest to the Sun (1.51 Rs) in GLE events, farthest from the Sun in FE SEP events (5.38 Rs), and at intermediate distances in regular SEP events (1.72 Rs). Finally, we present the results of a case study of a CME with high initial acceleration (~3 km s^-2) and a type II radio burst with high starting frequency (~200 MHz) but associated with a minor SEP event. We find that the relation between the fluence spectral index and CME initial acceleration continues to hold even for this minor SEP event.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, 1 table, to appear in Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS), Proceedings of the 16th Annual International Astrophysics Conference held in Santa Fe, NM, 201

    The Peculiar Behavior of Halo Coronal Mass Ejections in Solar Cycle 24

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    We report on a remarkable finding that the halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in cycle 24 are more abundant than in cycle 23, although the sunspot number in cycle 24 has dropped by about 40%. We also find that the distribution of halo-CME source locations is different in cycle 24: the longitude distribution of halos is much flatter with the number of halos originating at central meridian distance >/=60 degrees twice as large as that in cycle 23. On the other hand, the average speed and the associated soft X-ray flare size are the same in the two cycles, suggesting that the ambient medium into which the CMEs are ejected is significantly different. We suggest that both the higher abundance and larger central meridian longitudes of halo CMEs can be explained as a consequence of the diminished total pressure in the heliosphere in cycle 24 (Gopalswamy et al. 2014). The reduced total pressure allows CMEs expand more than usual making them appear as halos.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, April 7, 201
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