14,536 research outputs found

    Electromagnetic corrections to π−\pi ^-p scattering length from pionic hydrogen

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    We derive a closed, model space independent, expression for the electromagnetic correction factor Ύ\delta to the scattering length aa extracted from a hydrogenic atom with an extended charge to order α2\alpha ^2 and a3a^3 in the limit of a short ranged hadronic interaction.Comment: 4 pages; PANIC02, XVIth Conference on Particles and Nuclei, Osaka, to appear in Nuclear Physics

    Chiral Lagrangians and Quark Condensate in Nuclei

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    We study the evolution with density of the quark condensate in the nuclear medium with interacting nucleons and including the short range correlations. We work with two chiral models, the linear sigma model and the non-linear one. For the last one we use two versions, one which does not satisfy PCAC, and another one which does. We show that the quark condensate, as other observables, is independent on the variant selected. The application to physical pions excludes the linear sigma model as a credible one. In the non-linear models our conclusions are: first there is no systematic reaction imposed by chiral symmetry against symmetry restoration, second, if one keeps only the s-wave pion-nucleon interaction, the quark condensate evolves essentially linearly with density, as if the nucleons were non interacting. The main correction arises from the p-wave pion-nucleon interaction. Last, in the s-wave optical potential, chiral symmetry tolerates but does not impose two body terms. On the other hand the effect of correlations linked to the isospin symmetric amplitude is negligible.Comment: 24 pages, LaTex, 7 PostScript Figures, a couple of misprints corrected , 2 references added, a few modifications of the main text and conclusion, to be published in Nucl. Phys.

    Scalar response of the nucleon chiral symmetry and nuclear matter properties

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    In this talk we present a description of nuclear binding in a chiral approach based on the existence of a chiral invariant scalar field associated with the generation of the masses through spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. We discuss the emergence of such a field on the example of the NJL model. We also incorporate the effect of confinement at the level of the nucleon substructure to stabilize nuclear matter. In a particular quark-diquark model we illustrate the simutaneous influences of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and confinement on the nucleon mass and on the nuclear matter description.Comment: Talk given by G. chanfray at "Achievements and New Directions in Subatomic Physics: Workshop in Honour of Tony Thomas' 60th Birthday Adelaide, South Australia. February 15 - February 19, 2010"

    QCD susceptibilities and nuclear matter saturation in a chiral theory: inclusion of pion loops

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    We derive the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter in a relativistic theory with σ\sigma and ω\omega exchange. We take a chiral version of this model which insures all the chiral constraints. Going beyond the mean field approach we introduce the effects of the pion loops. For the parameters of the model, in order to fix those linked to pion exchange, we exploit the most recent information on the short-range part of the spin-isospin interaction. For those linked to the scalar meson exchange we make use of an analysis of lattice results on the nucleon mass evolution with the quark mass. With these inputs we are able reach a correct description of the saturation properties. From the equation of state of symmetric nuclear matter we alsoderive the density dependence of the quark condensate and of the QCD susceptibilities

    Relativistic Chiral Theory of Nuclear Matter and QCD Constraints

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    We present a relativistic chiral theory of nuclear matter which includes the effect of confinement. Nuclear binding is obtained with a chiral invariant scalar background field associated with the radial fluctuations of the chiral condensate Nuclear matter stability is ensured once the scalar response of the nucleon depending on the quark confinement mechanism is properly incorporated. All the parameters are fixed or constrained by hadron phenomenology and lattice data. A good description of nuclear saturation is reached, which includes the effect of in-medium pion loops. Asymmetry properties of nuclear matter are also well described once the full rho meson exchange and Fock terms are included.Comment: Talk given by G. Chanfray at PANIC 08, Eilat (Israel), november 10-14, 200

    Inclusive and pion production neutrino-nucleus cross sections

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    We analyze the experimental data on the inclusive double differential cross section by neutrinos charged current, measured by T2K, with the same model which was successful for the MiniBooNE quasielastic cross sections. As in our previous analysis the multinucleon component is needed in order to reproduce the data. For the total cross section our evaluation is smaller than the SciBooNE data above 1 GeV. This indicates the opening of a new channel not included in our evaluation, presumably the two pion emission channel. We also check that our description holds for the exclusive single pion production channel by confronting our evaluation with the MiniBooNE double differential cross section for a single charged pion and the Q^2 distribution. Both are compatible with data

    Relation between growth characteristics and yield of barley in different environments

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    The increasing interest in organic farming has increased the interest in examining the importance of the different growing characteristics, such as attack of diseases, grain weight, lodging and heading date. One of the important questions raised was whether the relationship between the growing characteristics and yield would be the same for conventionally and organically grown crop or would some growing characteristics be more important for organically than for conventionally grown crops. This work will focus on that question. The analyses are performed using two datasets with comparable trials in both conventional and organic grown systems for barley (Hordeum vulgare). The two datasets were from Sweden and Denmark. From Sweden 22 conventional and 22 organic grown trials were available. The trials were laid out at 4 locations in Northern Sweden during the years from 1994-2003. The number of varieties per trial varied between 7 and 15 and 50 varieties were represented. Most of the trials were laid out as split-plot designs with 2 nitrogen levels in the conventional grown trial and 2 seed rates in the organic grown trials. From Denmark 4 conventional and 4 organic grown trials were available. The trials were laid out as a-designs at 2 locations in 2 years (2003 and 2004). The number of varieties per trial varied between 108 and 113 and 146 varieties were represented. The data from each country were analysed in a linear mixed model. The effects of location, year, variety, their interaction and interaction with system were included as random effect. The effect of growing system and growing characteristics were included as fixed effects to see how much of the variation caused by varieties and interaction with varieties that could be explained by the growing characteristic and to se if the effect of the growing characteristics depended on the growing system. The analyses showed that the growing characteristics could explain a considerable part of the variance components for variety or interaction with variety. The effect of some growing characteristics depended significantly on the growing system, but the results varied to some extent between the two countries. In Sweden the effect of volume weight were more important in the conventional grown trials than in the organic grown trials whereas in Denmark grain weight was more important in the organic grown trials than in the conventional grown trials. In Denmark powdery mildew decreased the yield significantly more in conventional grown trials than in organic grown trials. In most cases the other diseases decreased the yield more in the organic grown trials than in the conventional grown trials. In some models the yield in organic grown trials increased as the level of scald attach increased. The results indicated that the effect of a given disease level decreased the yield more in the conventional grown trials than in the organic grown trials – or in some cases increased the yield in the organic grown trial while the yield in conventionally grown trials were increased less or decreased

    Fluctuations of the quark densities in nuclei

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    We study the static scalar susceptibility of the nuclear medium, i.e., the change of the quark condensate for a small modification of the quark mass. In the linear sigma model it is linked to the in-medium sigma propagator. At ordinary nuclear densities, when chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken, the scalar susceptibility is distinct from the pseudoscalar one, which is linked to the fluctuations of the quark pseudoscalar density. We show that the pseudoscalar one, which is large in the vacuum, owing to the smallness of the pion mass, follows the density evolution of the quark condensate and thus decreases. The scalar one instead increases due to the mixing with the softer modes of the nucleon-hole excitations. At normal nuclear matter density the two susceptibilities become much closer, a partial chiral symmetry restoration effect as they become equal when the full restoration is achieved.Comment: 9 pages, 1 figure, submitted to Phys. Rev.