449 research outputs found

    A Search for Additional Neutral Higgs Bosons in ŌĄŌĄ\tau\tau Final States in pp Collisions at s=13‚ÄČTeV\sqrt{s} = 13\, \mathrm{TeV}

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    Many proposed extensions of the standard model of particle physics (SM) predict an extended Higgs sector with respect to the SM. Experimentally, this extended Higgs sector is accessible through searches for additional spin-0 particles often referred to as additional Higgs bosons. Decays of neutral Higgs bosons to pairs of tau leptons provide the prime search channel for such particles in the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) and other two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM) of Type II since their couplings are enhanced in wide areas of the parameter space. In this thesis, a search for such decays in the form of a search for an additional resonance above the SM prediction in the ŌĄŌĄ\tau\tau mass spectrum, targeting the production via gluon fusion and in association with b quarks, is presented. The results are portrayed in two ways. First, model-independent exclusion limits on the product of the production cross section and the branching fraction for the decay into tau leptons of the targeted resonance are derived. These limits translate into model-dependent exclusion contours in a set of MSSM and 2HDM benchmark scenarios, which are inferred from the full ŌĄŌĄ\tau\tau spectrum predicted by the investigated scenario

    A Step Towards Global Counterfactual Explanations: Approximating the Feature Space Through Hierarchical Division and Graph Search

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    The field of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) tries to make learned models more understandable. One type of explanation for such models are counterfactual explanations. Counterfactual explanations explain the decision for a specific instance, the factual, by providing a similar instance which leads to a different decision, the counterfactual. In this work a new approaches around the idea of counterfactuals was developed. It generates a data structure over the feature space of a classification problem to accelerate the search for counterfactuals and augments them with global explanations. The approach maps the feature space by hierarchically dividing it into regions which belong to the same class. It is applicable in any case where predictions can be generated for input data, even without direct access to the model. The framework works well for lower-dimensional problems but becomes unpractical due to high computation times at around 12 to 15 dimensions

    Association of thyroid function with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in recent-onset diabetes

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    Background and Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but also to hypothyroidism. Nevertheless, the relationship between thyroid function and NAFLD in diabetes is less clear. This study investigated associations between free thyroxine (fT4) or thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and NAFLD in recent-onset diabetes. Methods: Participants with recent-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D, n = 358), T2D (n = 596) or without diabetes (CON, n = 175) of the German Diabetes Study (GDS), a prospective longitudinal cohort study, underwent Botnia clamp tests and assessment of fT4, TSH, fatty liver index (FLI) and in a representative subcohort 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results: First, fT4 levels were similar between T1D and T2D (p =.55), but higher than in CON (T1D: p <.01; T2D: p <.001), while TSH concentrations were not different between all groups. Next, fT4 correlated negatively with FLI and positively with insulin sensitivity only in T2D (ß = -.110, p <.01; ß =.126, p <.05), specifically in males (ß = -.117, p <.05; ß =.162; p <.01) upon adjustments for age, sex and BMI. However, correlations between fT4 and FLI lost statistical significance after adjustment for insulin sensitivity (T2D: ß = -.021, p = 0.67; males with T2D: ß = -.033; p =.56). TSH was associated positively with FLI only in male T2D before (ß =.116, p <.05), but not after adjustments for age and BMI (ß =.052; p =.30). Conclusions: Steatosis risk correlates with lower thyroid function in T2D, which is mediated by insulin resistance and body mass, specifically in men, whereas no such relationship is present in T1D

    Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Europe - results of the EuReCa TWO study.

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    BACKGROUND The epidemiology and outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) varies across Europe. Following on from EuReCa ONE, the aim of this study was to further explore the incidence of and outcomes from OHCA in Europe and to improve understanding of the role of the bystander. METHODS This prospective, multicentre study involved the collection of registry-based data over a three-month period (1 October 2017 to 31 December 2017). The core study dataset complied with the Utstein-style. Primary outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival to hospital admission. Secondary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. RESULTS All 28 countries provided data, covering a total population of 178,879,118. A total of 37,054 OHCA were confirmed, with CPR being started in 25,171 cases. The bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) rate ranged from 13% to 82% between countries (average: 58%). In one third of cases (33%) ROSC was achieved and 8% of patients were discharged from hospital alive. Survival to hospital discharge was higher in patients when a bystander performed CPR with ventilations, compared to compression-only CPR (14% vs. 8% respectively). CONCLUSION In addition to increasing our understanding of the role of bystander CPR within Europe, EuReCa TWO has confirmed large variation in OHCA incidence, characteristics and outcome, and highlighted the extent to which OHCA is a public health burden across Europe. Unexplained variation remains and the EuReCa network has a continuing role to play in improving the quality management of resuscitation

    To ventilate or not to ventilate during bystander CPR : a EuReCa TWO analysis

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    Background: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still low. For every minute without resuscitation the likelihood of survival decreases. One critical step is initiation of immediate, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this subgroup analysis of data collected for the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest Study number 2 (EuReCa TWO) was to investigate the association between OHCA survival and two types of bystander CPR namely: chest compression only CPR (CConly) and CPR with chest compressions and ventilations (FullCPR). Method: In this subgroup analysis of EuReCa TWO, all patients who received bystander CPR were included. Outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation and survival to 30-days or hospital discharge. A multilevel binary logistic regression analysis with survival as the dependent variable was performed. Results: A total of 5884 patients were included in the analysis, varying between countries from 21 to 1444. Survival was 320 (8%) in the CConly group and 174 (13%) in the FullCPR group. After adjustment for age, sex, location, rhythm, cause, time to scene, witnessed collapse and country, patients who received FullCPR had a significantly higher survival rate when compared to those who received CConly (adjusted odds ration 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.17‚Äď1.83). Conclusion: In this analysis, FullCPR was associated with higher survival compared to CConly. Guidelines should continue to emphasise the importance of compressions and ventilations during resuscitation for patients who suffer OHCA and CPR courses should continue to teach both

    To ventilate or not to ventilate during bystander CPR ‚ÄĒ A EuReCa TWO analysis

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    Background: Survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is still low. For every minute without resuscitation the likelihood of survival decreases. One critical step is initiation of immediate, high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this subgroup analysis of data collected for the European Registry of Cardiac Arrest Study number 2 (EuReCa TWO) was to investigate the association between OHCA survival and two types of bystander CPR namely: chest compression only CPR (CConly) and CPR with chest compressions and ventilations (FullCPR). Method: In this subgroup analysis of EuReCa TWO, all patients who received bystander CPR were included. Outcomes were return of spontaneous circulation and survival to 30-days or hospital discharge. A multilevel binary logistic regression analysis with survival as the dependent variable was performed. Results: A total of 5884 patients were included in the analysis, varying between countries from 21 to 1444. Survival was 320 (8%) in the CConly group and 174 (13%) in the FullCPR group. After adjustment for age, sex, location, rhythm, cause, time to scene, witnessed collapse and country, patients who received FullCPR had a significantly higher survival rate when compared to those who received CConly (adjusted odds ration 1.46, 95% confidence interval 1.17‚Äď1.83). Conclusion: In this analysis, FullCPR was associated with higher survival compared to CConly. Guidelines should continue to emphasise the importance of compressions and ventilations during resuscitation for patients who suffer OHCA and CPR courses should continue to teach both

    Development of the CMS detector for the CERN LHC Run 3

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    International audienceSince the initial data taking of the CERN LHC, the CMS experiment has undergone substantial upgrades and improvements. This paper discusses the CMS detector as it is configured for the third data-taking period of the CERN LHC, Run 3, which started in 2022. The entire silicon pixel tracking detector was replaced. A new powering system for the superconducting solenoid was installed. The electronics of the hadron calorimeter was upgraded. All the muon electronic systems were upgraded, and new muon detector stations were added, including a gas electron multiplier detector. The precision proton spectrometer was upgraded. The dedicated luminosity detectors and the beam loss monitor were refurbished. Substantial improvements to the trigger, data acquisition, software, and computing systems were also implemented, including a new hybrid CPU/GPU farm for the high-level trigger

    Development of the CMS detector for the CERN LHC Run 3