11,762 research outputs found

    Loss of Individual MicroRNAs Causes Mutant Phenotypes in Sensitized Genetic Backgrounds in \u3cem\u3eC. elegans\u3c/em\u3e

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    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the translation and/or stability of their mRNA targets. Previous work showed that for most miRNA genes of C. elegans, single-gene knockouts did not result in detectable mutant phenotypes. This may be due, in part, to functional redundancy between miRNAs. However, in most cases, worms carrying deletions of all members of a miRNA family do not display strong mutant phenotypes. They may function together with unrelated miRNAs or with non-miRNA genes in regulatory networks, possibly to ensure the robustness of developmental mechanisms. To test this, we examined worms lacking individual miRNAs in genetically sensitized backgrounds. These include genetic backgrounds with reduced processing and activity of all miRNAs or with reduced activity of a wide array of regulatory pathways. With these two approaches, we identified mutant phenotypes for 25 out of 31 miRNAs included in this analysis. Our findings describe biological roles for individual miRNAs and suggest that the use of sensitized genetic backgrounds provides an efficient approach for miRNA functional analysis

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    Design and fabrication of a centrifugally driven microfluidic disk for fully integrated metabolic assays on whole blood

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    For the first time, we present a novel and fully integrated centrifugal microfluidic “ lab-on-a-disk” for rapid metabolic assays in human whole blood. All essential steps comprising blood sampling, metering, plasma extraction and the final optical detection are conducted within t = 150 s in passive structures integrated on one disposable disk. Our technology features a novel plasma extraction structure (V = 500 nL, CV < 5%) without using any hydrophobic microfluidics where the purified plasma (cRBC< 0.11%) is centrifugally separated and subsequently extracted through a capillarily primed extraction channel into the detection chamber. While this capillary extraction requires precisely defined, narrow micro-structures, the reactive mixing and detection is most efficient within larger cavities. The corresponding manufacturing technique of these macro- and micro structures in the range of 30 µ m to 1000 µ m is also presented for the first time: A novel, cost-efficient hybrid prototyping technique of a multiscale epoxy master for subsequent hot embossing of polymer disks

    Job Sharing in Physical Therapy

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    The profession of physical therapy continues to experience staff shortages in several areas. As these shortages continue, employees and employers will seek to identify alternative work schedules to attempt to meet this demand. Job sharing is one type of alternative where two people share the duties and responsibilities of one full-time position. The purpose of this study was to 1) determine the prevalence of job sharing in physical therapy departments in acute care hospitals and rehab facilities, 2) review the types of schedules utilized by job sharing partners, 3) identify the job title of the shared position, and 4) discuss the perceived advantages/disadvantages to the employee/employer. The sample consisted of 85 randomly selected physical therapy departments in a six-state region. A survey was sent to the director of physical therapy in each facility identified in the sample. Results indicated that job sharing occurred in 23 of the 61 facilities returning the survey (38%) with staff therapist the most common position held by job sharing partners. The average number of FTEs (full-time equivalent) allotted for job sharing positions was 1.5, and the most frequently utilized schedule was 3 days on/2 days off, alternating weeks. Several advantages/disadvantages to the employee/employer are identified. The results of this survey may be beneficial to employees and employers who may be considering job sharing in their facility. It also may offer new ideas to those who currently have this type of arrangement

    Creating Effective Broadband Network Regulation

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    The Internet is central to the business and pastimes of Americans. Calls for increased regulation are ongoing, inevitable, and often justified. But calls for network neutrality or nondiscrimination assume with little hesitation federal agency competence to give predictable and accurate meaning to these terms and create regulations to implement them. This Article\u27s chief contribution to Internet policy debate is to focus attention on the likelihood of successful FCC Internet regulation-a key assumption of some advocates. The Article analyzes three characteristics that hobble the FCC, which is the likeliest federal agency to provide prescriptive rules. First, the record for the agency on a host of industry decisions where technology plays a pivotal role tilts decidedly against counting on successful regulation. Second, the technology here is unlike anything the FCC has successfully regulated before. Judging networks, which are constructed and operated for maximum private gain and not based on a government-approved rate of return model, isn\u27t among them. Finally, the agency itself has yet to demonstrate that it is the best locus of power for deciding the fate of the Internet. The political economy of the FCC makes it less successful as an expert agency. This Article focuses on two somewhat interrelated solutions: reliance on the shame/Wiki/blog culture of the Internet and disclosure of management practices by network providers, enforceable under contract. These approaches are congenial with the most basic Internet values of information transparency and sharing
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