Washington University St. Louis: Open Scholarship

    Predicting Disease Progression Using Deep Recurrent Neural Networks and Longitudinal Electronic Health Record Data

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    Electronic Health Records (EHR) are widely adopted and used throughout healthcare systems and are able to collect and store longitudinal information data that can be used to describe patient phenotypes. From the underlying data structures used in the EHR, discrete data can be extracted and analyzed to improve patient care and outcomes via tasks such as risk stratification and prospective disease management. Temporality in EHR is innately present given the nature of these data, however, and traditional classification models are limited in this context by the cross- sectional nature of training and prediction processes. Finding temporal patterns in EHR is especially important as it encodes temporal concepts such as event trends, episodes, cycles, and abnormalities. Previously, there have been attempts to utilize temporal neural network models to predict clinical intervention time and mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) and recurrent neural network (RNN) models to predict multiple types of medical conditions as well as medication use. However, such work has been limited in scope and generalizability beyond the immediate use cases that have been focused upon. In order to extend the relevant knowledge- base, this study demonstrates a predictive modeling pipeline that can extract and integrate clinical information from the EHR, construct a feature set, and apply a deep recurrent neural network (DRNN) to model complex time stamped longitudinal data for monitoring and managing the progression of a disease condition. It utilizes longitudinal data of pediatric patient cohort diagnosed with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1), which is one of the most common neurogenetic disorders and occurs in 1 of every 3,000 births, without predilection for race, sex, or ethnicity. The prediction pipeline is differentiable from other efforts to-date that have sought to model NF1 progression in that it involves the analysis of multi-dimensional phenotypes wherein the DRNN is able to model complex non-linear relationships between event points in the longitudinal data both temporally and . Such an approach is critical when seeking to transition from traditional evidence-based care models to precision medicine paradigms. Furthermore, our predictive modeling pipeline can be generalized and applied to manage the progression and stratify the risks in other similar complex diseases, as it can predict multiple set of sub-phenotypical features from training on longitudinal event sequences

    Reimagine Parking

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    Over the course of the semester, students spoke with residents, visitors and organizations involved in Grand Center, as well as professionals in the fields of real estate development, public policy, public art, architecture and urban design. Students drew upon their mapping analysis and these conversations (and from existing plans completed for the area over the past few years) to create a set of goals that informed a new framework proposal for the district. The framework then formed the basis for individual speculative student design proposals on selected sites that explore formal approaches to ideas within the framework. Re-imagining multistory parking garages to make them multi-functional and flexible. Proposing an alternate design for the proposed FOX parking garage which combines parking with commercial and residential, while activating a more vibrant street life.https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/spring2016_heyda/1000/thumbnail.jp

    [Xiaoxin Cao Studio Board]

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    This studio draws attention to the political and social contexts within which public art is commissioned and encountered. It suggests that landscape architects should participate in the development of a critical language for the discussion of topics that the idea of public art involves. By implication, it asks also how site-specific art in public places connects with landscape architecture in the public realm. To regulate student work, the four classical elements of earth, air, fire and water (the “classical tetrad”) were invoked, and students were required to base their work in one of these elements, as a way to enter the world of phenomena (rather than through, say, ecological, horticultural or infrastructural frameworks). Additionally, students were asked to consider a site as an assemblage - a dynamic interactive set of physical and non-physical systems, in which they should intervene on the basis of their interpretation of the classical element assigned to them. Finally, the studio used the generative capacity of landscape operations to develop designs for the sites that they discovered through GIS processing. When students use operations to develop design outcomes, they are not designing toward specific or even general objectives. They simply explore the range of landscape conditions that are made possible by manipulating topographies, hydrologies and ecologies through, for instance, the operations of excavation, or dispersal, or aeration. They do what the process suggests that they do, but with careful attention to the articulation of the novel conditions it provokes. This means that design outcomes may be quite surprising, even challenging; often outside the realm of civic administrators’ expectations of landscape architectural intervention. The studio critiqued the assumption that urban public space should always provide amenity, especially if it is drawing attention to problematic conditions of social existence. Perhaps the real objective of the studio was to demonstrate that public space can be the site both of social discourse (where community issues are played out rather than civic ideals are enacted) and of considered landscape-driven urban provocations.https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/spring2015_barnett/1000/thumbnail.jp

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    Centrality of Blockchain

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    Decentralization is widely recognized as the property and one of most important advantage of blockchain over legacy systems. However, decentralization is often discussed on the consensus layer and recent research shows the trend of centralization on several subsystem of blockchain. In this project, we measured centralization of Bitcoin and Ethereum on source code, development eco-system, and network node levels. We found that the programming language of project is highly centralized, code clone is very common inside Bitcoin and Ethereum community, and developer contribution distribution is highly centralized. We further discuss how could these centralizations lead to security issues in blockchain. Our work can also provide some empirical background for future security analysis on blockchain systems

    Implementation and Validation of Quadratic Constitutive Relation in One-Equation k-kL Turbulence Model

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    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been widely used in modern engineering analysis of products and systems involving fluid flow. In majority of applications, the flow is turbulent; however accurate prediction of turbulent flow remains a challenging problem to date. Considering both the accuracy and cost of simulations, the most widely used approach for simulation of turbulent flows is to solve the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) in conjunction with a turbulence model which models the Reynolds stresses using the Boussinesq approximation that relates the Reynolds stress tensor to strain tensor via an eddy viscosity. In past many decades, a linear relationship between Reynolds Stress tensor and strain tensor has been employed in almost all turbulence models. Linear eddy viscosity models have shown good results for wide variety of flows; however in many cases they have been found to be inadequate. Therefore, the nonlinear Quadratic Constitutive Relation (QCR) has been suggested to improve the accuracy of simulations. In this thesis, QCR is implemented for a recently developed one-equation k-kL turbulence model by Shuai and Agarwal, and is tested by comparing its accuracy with linear eddy viscosity models and one-equation Algebraic Reynolds Stress Model (ARSM) developed by Wen and Agarwal. The computational results for k-kL-QCR for several benchmark cases from NASA TMR are compared to other widely used turbulence models with QCR, such as Spalart-Allmaras model (SA), Wray-Agarwal model (WA) and SST k-ω model. It is shown that one-equation k-kL-QCR model shows good accuracy against experimental data with less computational cost for both incompressible and compressible transonic and supersonic flow cases

    Blurring the Boundary: Reinvigorating Joy in the Mundane through Juxtaposition

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    There is an inherent tension between interior and exterior as experienced by the human body. We live an overwhelming majority of our lives indoors, yet we are consistently compelled towards the natural world. This compulsion is necessitated by biophilia, driving a desire to be around lifelike processes. The boundary between interior and exterior mandates that we live our lives on one side or the other at a time, never simultaneously existing both indoors and outdoors. A disparity between the spaces is therefore maintained by the boundary. This perpetual separation sets up for the perfect use of juxtaposition, which is utilized by artists to reinvigorate observational skills and guide viewers to rediscover joy in mundane experience. Visual art is the most conducive to this means of communication, as it allows the viewer to take a cyclical approach to information rather than forcing it into a standardized structure. Artists who take a critical eye to the standardization of presentation and violate the traditional methods of gallery display encourage a viewer to approach experience from a novel perspective, especially that of a domestic nature. Through a manipulation of perspective, the usual becomes unusual and mundane experience elicits a newfound sense of joy

    Speaking Through Surrogates: A Body in Pain

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    The title of this thesis is derived from an exploration of how bodily representation, isolated between channels of language, sound, or image, can uniquely objectify expressions of pain. The first exercise was to represent the presence of a human body through the medium-specific constraints of each channel. Building from Elaine Scarry’s The Body in Pain and phenomenological studies on pain, this exercise was informed by three concepts: (1) a paradox of signs, (2) pain and imagination, and (3) pain and memory. Second, by toggling between the channels and finding the unique communicative potential within their structural constraints, I created opportunities to objectify aspects of pain so as to create a presence for an experience that is inherently invisible and absent outside of oneself. I will demonstrate this through three works of art: The Language of Flowers, video, 2019; Untitled, video, 2020; Untitled, mixed-media installation, 2020

    Time is Money: An Empirical Assessment of Non-Economic Damages Arguments

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    Non-economic damages (pain and suffering) are the most significant and variable components of liability. Our survey of fifty-one U.S. jurisdictions shows wide heterogeneity in whether attorneys may quantify damages as time-units of suffering (per diem) or demand a specific amount (lump sum). Either sort of large number could exploit an irrational anchoring effect. We performed a realistic, online, video-based experiment with 732 human subjects. We replicated prior work showing that large lump sum demands drive larger jury verdicts, but surprisingly found no effect of similarly-sized per diem anchors. We did find per diem effects on binary liability outcomes, and thus expected case values, and we discuss potential causal mechanisms, based in the cognitive science literature. This empirical work contradicts the speculations by scholars and courts that per diem arguments powerfully impact damage awards by exploiting juror irrationality. Nonetheless, our data surprisingly shows per diem arguments enhancing the expected value of cases by increasing win rates, perhaps because they allow plaintiffs to explain the basis for a large request. This latter dynamic would not seem to justify the proscription currently employed in some jurisdictions
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