55 research outputs found

    Geschichte diversifizieren und lebendig werden lassen – letzte Kriegsjahre, Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs und Nachkriegszeit im DaF-Unterricht

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    In diesem Beitrag soll dargestellt werden, wie einige für das gegenwärtige Deutschland überaus wichtige Jahre, nämlich die Zeit der letzten Jahre des Zweiten Weltkriegs, das Kriegsende, die Gründung von Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Deutscher Demokratischer Republik sowie die Nachkriegszeit im DaF-Unterricht an Hochschulen mit fortgeschrittenen Studierenden (Niveau: C1) behandelt werden können. Dabei soll der Schwerpunkt auf Aspekten liegen, die im Geschichtsunterricht der Schule – zumindest in Italien und man darf annehmen auch in vielen anderen Ländern – eher vernachlässigt werden, so u.a. der Bombardierung deutscher Städte am Beispiel Hamburgs (1943) und der für die Bevölkerung schwierigen Nachkriegszeit. Ziel des Beitrags ist es, zu zeigen, wie kulturreflexives Lernen in Bezug auf diese Geschichte im hochschuldidaktischen Kontext gefördert werden kann. Dabei sollen das geschichtsdidaktische Paradigma der Multiperspektivität und emotionale Aspekte der Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte durch den Einsatz unterschiedlicher Medien gleichermaßen gewährleistet werden

    An exploratory study of information sources and key findings on UK cocaine-related deaths.

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    Cocaine-related deaths have increased since the early 1990s in Europe, including the UK. Being multi-factorial, they are difficult to define, detect and record. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction commissioned research to: describe trends reported to Special Mortality Registries and General Mortality Registers; provide demographic and drug-use characteristic information of cases; and establish how deaths are identified and classified. A questionnaire was developed and piloted amongst all European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction Focal Point experts/Special Mortality Registries: 19 (63%) responded; nine countries provided aggregated data. UK General Mortality Registers use cause of death and toxicology to identify cocaine-related deaths. Categorisation is based on International Classification of Diseases codes. Special Mortality Registries use toxicology, autopsy, evidence and cause of death. The cocaine metabolites commonly screened for are: benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, cocaethylene and ecgonine. The 2000s saw a generally accelerating upward trend in cases, followed by a decline in 2009. The UK recorded 2700-2900 deaths during 1998-2012. UK Special Mortality Registry data (2005-2009) indicate: 25-44 year-olds account for 74% of deaths; mean age=34 (range 15-81) years; 84% male. Cocaine overdoses account for two-thirds of cases; cocaine alone being mentioned/implicated in 23% in the UK. Opioids are involved in most (58%) cocaine overdose cases

    Clinical profiling of specific diagnostic subgroups of women with chronic pelvic pain

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    Introduction: Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is a common condition affecting up to 26.6% of women, with many suffering for several years before diagnosis and/or treatment. Its clinical presentation is varied and there are frequently comorbid conditions both within and outside the pelvis. We aim to explore whether specific subgroups of women with CPP report different clinical symptoms and differing impact of pain on their quality of life (QoL). Methods: The study is part of the Translational Research in Pelvic Pain (TRiPP) project which is a cross-sectional observational cohort study. The study includes 769 female participants of reproductive age who completed an extensive set of questions derived from standardised WERF EPHect questionnaires. Within this population we defined a control group (reporting no pelvic pain, no bladder pain syndrome, and no endometriosis diagnosis, N = 230) and four pain groups: endometriosis-associated pain (EAP, N = 237), interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS, N = 72), comorbid endometriosis-associated pain and BPS (EABP, N = 120), and pelvic pain only (PP, N = 127). Results: Clinical profiles of women with CPP (13–50 years old) show variability of clinical symptoms. The EAP and EABP groups scored higher than the PP group (p p p p p p p  Discussion: Our results demonstrate the negative impact that chronic pain has on CPP patients' QoL and reveal an increased negative impact of pain on the comorbid EABP group. Furthermore, it demonstrates the importance of dyspareunia in women with CPP. Overall, our results demonstrate the need for further exploration of interventions targeting QoL more broadly and suggest that novel approaches to classifying women with CPP are needed

    A Reappraisal of Children’s ‘Potential’

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    What does it mean for a child to fulfil his or her potential? This article explores the contexts and implications of the much-used concept of potential in educational discourses. We claim that many of the popular, political and educational uses of the term in relation to childhood have a problematic blind spot: interpersonality, and the necessary coexistence for the concept to be receivable of all children’s ‘potentials’. Rather than advocating abandoning the term—a futile gesture given its emotive force—we argue that the concept of children’s potential must be profoundly rethought to be workable as a philosophical notion in education. In an era marked by the unspoken assumption that ‘unlimited potential’ is always a good thing, we argue that it might be necessary to think about the limitations of the notion of individual potential; namely, the moment when it comes into contact with other people’s projects. We propose a conceptualisation of potential as the negotiated, situated, ever-changing creation of a group of individuals, in a process marked by conflict, and which remains essentially difficult.This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11217-016-9508-

    Validation of 2006 WHO Prediction Scores for True HIV Infection in Children Less than 18 Months with a Positive Serological HIV Test

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    All infants born to HIV-positive mothers have maternal HIV antibodies, sometimes persistent for 18 months. When Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is not available, August 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations suggest that clinical criteria may be used for starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in HIV seropositive children <18 months. Predictors are at least two out of sepsis, severe pneumonia and thrush, or any stage 4 defining clinical finding according to the WHO staging system.From January 2005 to October 2006, we conducted a prospective study on 236 hospitalized children <18 months old with a positive HIV serological test at the national reference hospital in Kigali. The following data were collected: PCR, clinical signs and CD4 cell count. Current proposed clinical criteria were present in 148 of 236 children (62.7%) and in 95 of 124 infected children, resulting in 76.6% sensitivity and 52.7% specificity. For 87 children (59.0%), clinical diagnosis was made based on severe unexplained malnutrition (stage 4 clinical WHO classification), of whom only 44 (50.5%) were PCR positive. Low CD4 count had a sensitivity of 55.6% and a specificity of 78.5%.As PCR is not yet widely available, clinical diagnosis is often necessary, but these criteria have poor specificity and therefore have limited use for HIV diagnosis. Unexplained malnutrition is not clearly enough defined in WHO recommendations. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), almost impossible to prove in young children, may often be the cause of malnutrition, especially in HIV-affected families more often exposed to TB. Food supplementation and TB treatment should be initiated before starting ART in children who are staged based only on severe malnutrition

    Identification of Pathway-Biased and Deleterious Melatonin Receptor Mutants in Autism Spectrum Disorders and in the General Population

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    Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration of the melatonin pathway has been reported in circadian disorders, diabetes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very little is known about the genetic variability of melatonin receptors in humans. Here, we sequenced the melatonin receptor MTNR1A and MTNR1B, genes coding for MT1 and MT2 receptors, respectively, in a large panel of 941 individuals including 295 patients with ASD, 362 controls and 284 individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. We also sequenced GPR50, coding for the orphan melatonin-related receptor GPR50 in patients and controls. We identified six non-synonymous mutations for MTNR1A and ten for MTNR1B. The majority of these variations altered receptor function. Particularly interesting mutants are MT1-I49N, which is devoid of any melatonin binding and cell surface expression, and MT1-G166E and MT1-I212T, which showed severely impaired cell surface expression. Of note, several mutants possessed pathway-selective signaling properties, some preferentially inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase pathway, others preferentially activating the MAPK pathway. The prevalence of these deleterious mutations in cases and controls indicates that they do not represent major risk factor for ASD (MTNR1A case 3.6% vs controls 4.4%; MTNR1B case 4.7% vs 3% controls). Concerning GPR50, we detected a significant association between ASD and two variations, Δ502–505 and T532A, in affected males, but it did not hold up after Bonferonni correction for multiple testing. Our results represent the first functional ascertainment of melatonin receptors in humans and constitute a basis for future structure-function studies and for interpreting genetic data on the melatonin pathway in patients

    What Makes Retirees Happier: A Gradual or 'Cold Turkey' Retirement?

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    This study explores the factors that affect an individual’s happiness while transitioning into retirement. Recent studies highlight gradual retirement as an attractive option to older workers as they approach full retirement. However, it is not clear whether phasing or cold turkey makes for a happier retirement. Using longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, this study explores what shapes the change in happiness between the last wave of full employment and the first wave of full retirement. Results suggest that what really matters is not the type of transition (gradual retirement or cold turkey), but whether people perceive the transition as chosen or forced
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