2,534 research outputs found

    Long-range epidemic spreading with immunization

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    We study the phase transition between survival and extinction in an epidemic process with long-range interactions and immunization. This model can be viewed as the well-known general epidemic process (GEP) in which nearest-neighbor interactions are replaced by Levy flights over distances r which are distributed as P(r) ~ r^(-d-sigma). By extensive numerical simulations we confirm previous field-theoretical results obtained by Janssen et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B7, 137 (1999)].Comment: LaTeX, 14 pages, 4 eps figure

    Observing relativistic features in large-scale structure surveys -- I: Multipoles of the power spectrum

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    Planned efforts to probe the largest observable distance scales in future cosmological surveys are motivated by a desire to detect relic correlations left over from inflation, and the possibility of constraining novel gravitational phenomena beyond General Relativity (GR). On such large scales, the usual Newtonian approaches to modelling summary statistics like the power spectrum and bispectrum are insufficient, and we must consider a fully relativistic and gauge-independent treatment of observables such as galaxy number counts in order to avoid subtle biases, e.g. in the determination of the fNLf_{\rm NL} parameter. In this work, we present an initial application of an analysis pipeline capable of accurately modelling and recovering relativistic spectra and correlation functions. As a proof of concept, we focus on the non-zero dipole of the redshift-space power spectrum that arises in the cross-correlation of different mass bins of dark matter halos, using strictly gauge-independent observable quantities evaluated on the past light cone of a fully relativistic N-body simulation in a redshift bin 1.7z2.91.7 \le z \le 2.9. We pay particular attention to the correct estimation of power spectrum multipoles, comparing different methods of accounting for complications such as the survey geometry (window function) and evolution/bias effects on the past light cone, and discuss how our results compare with previous attempts at extracting novel GR signatures from relativistic simulations

    Word matching using single closed contours for indexing handwritten historical documents

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    Effective indexing is crucial for providing convenient access to scanned versions of large collections of historically valuable handwritten manuscripts. Since traditional handwriting recognizers based on optical character recognition (OCR) do not perform well on historical documents, recently a holistic word recognition approach has gained in popularity as an attractive and more straightforward solution (Lavrenko et al. in proc. document Image Analysis for Libraries (DIAL’04), pp. 278–287, 2004). Such techniques attempt to recognize words based on scalar and profile-based features extracted from whole word images. In this paper, we propose a new approach to holistic word recognition for historical handwritten manuscripts based on matching word contours instead of whole images or word profiles. The new method consists of robust extraction of closed word contours and the application of an elastic contour matching technique proposed originally for general shapes (Adamek and O’Connor in IEEE Trans Circuits Syst Video Technol 5:2004). We demonstrate that multiscale contour-based descriptors can effectively capture intrinsic word features avoiding any segmentation of words into smaller subunits. Our experiments show a recognition accuracy of 83%, which considerably exceeds the performance of other systems reported in the literature

    Non-equilibrium Phase Transitions with Long-Range Interactions

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    This review article gives an overview of recent progress in the field of non-equilibrium phase transitions into absorbing states with long-range interactions. It focuses on two possible types of long-range interactions. The first one is to replace nearest-neighbor couplings by unrestricted Levy flights with a power-law distribution P(r) ~ r^(-d-sigma) controlled by an exponent sigma. Similarly, the temporal evolution can be modified by introducing waiting times Dt between subsequent moves which are distributed algebraically as P(Dt)~ (Dt)^(-1-kappa). It turns out that such systems with Levy-distributed long-range interactions still exhibit a continuous phase transition with critical exponents varying continuously with sigma and/or kappa in certain ranges of the parameter space. In a field-theoretical framework such algebraically distributed long-range interactions can be accounted for by replacing the differential operators nabla^2 and d/dt with fractional derivatives nabla^sigma and (d/dt)^kappa. As another possibility, one may introduce algebraically decaying long-range interactions which cannot exceed the actual distance to the nearest particle. Such interactions are motivated by studies of non-equilibrium growth processes and may be interpreted as Levy flights cut off at the actual distance to the nearest particle. In the continuum limit such truncated Levy flights can be described to leading order by terms involving fractional powers of the density field while the differential operators remain short-ranged.Comment: LaTeX, 39 pages, 13 figures, minor revision

    Persistence, extinction and spatio-temporal synchronization of SIRS cellular automata models

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    Spatially explicit models have been widely used in today's mathematical ecology and epidemiology to study persistence and extinction of populations as well as their spatial patterns. Here we extend the earlier work--static dispersal between neighbouring individuals to mobility of individuals as well as multi-patches environment. As is commonly found, the basic reproductive ratio is maximized for the evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) on diseases' persistence in mean-field theory. This has important implications, as it implies that for a wide range of parameters that infection rate will tend maximum. This is opposite with present results obtained in spatial explicit models that infection rate is limited by upper bound. We observe the emergence of trade-offs of extinction and persistence on the parameters of the infection period and infection rate and show the extinction time having a linear relationship with respect to system size. We further find that the higher mobility can pronouncedly promote the persistence of spread of epidemics, i.e., the phase transition occurs from extinction domain to persistence domain, and the spirals' wavelength increases as the mobility increasing and ultimately, it will saturate at a certain value. Furthermore, for multi-patches case, we find that the lower coupling strength leads to anti-phase oscillation of infected fraction, while higher coupling strength corresponds to in-phase oscillation.Comment: 12page