19,467 research outputs found

    Awareness and perceptions of Long COVID among people in the REACT programme: early insights from a pilot interview study

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    BACKGROUND: Long COVID is a patient-made term describing new or persistent symptoms experienced following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Real-time Assessment of Community Transmission-Long COVID (REACT-LC) study aims to understand variation in experiences following infection, and to identify biological, social, and environmental factors associated with Long COVID. We undertook a pilot interview study to inform the design, recruitment approach, and topic guide for the REACT-LC qualitative study. We sought to gain initial insights into the experience and attribution of new or persistent symptoms and the awareness or perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. METHODS: People were invited to REACT-LC assessment centres if they had taken part in REACT, a random community-based prevalence study, and had a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We invited people from REACT-LC assessment centres who had reported experiencing persistent symptoms for more than 12 weeks to take part in an interview. We conducted face to face and online semi-structured interviews which were transcribed and analysed using Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: We interviewed 13 participants (6 female, 7 male, median age 31). Participants reported a wide variation in both new and persistent symptoms which were often fluctuating or unpredictable in nature. Some participants were confident about the link between their persistent symptoms and COVID-19; however, others were unclear about the underlying cause of symptoms or felt that the impact of public health measures (such as lockdowns) played a role. We found differences in awareness and perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. CONCLUSION: This pilot has informed the design, recruitment approach and topic guide for our qualitative study. It offers preliminary insights into the varied experiences of people living with persistent symptoms including differences in symptom attribution and perceived applicability of the term Long COVID. This variation shows the value of recruiting from a nationally representative sample of participants who are experiencing persistent symptoms

    Pathogenesis and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis from the perspective of sinonasal epithelial dysfunction

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    BackgroundChronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a clinical syndrome primarily characterized by long-term mucosal inflammation of the nasal cavity and sinuses. The pathogenesis of CRS is still unclear due to its high heterogeneity. A number of studies have recently focused on the sinonasal epithelium. Thus, there has been a quantum leap in awareness of the role of the sinonasal epithelium, which is now understood as an active functional organ rather than simply an inert mechanical barrier. Undoubtedly, epithelial dysfunction plays a vital role in the onset and development of CRS.ObjectiveIn this article, we discuss the potential contribution of sinonasal epithelium dysfunction to CRS pathogenesis and explore a few current and developing therapeutic options targeting the sinonasal epithelium.ResultsImpaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) and an abnormal sinonasal epithelial barrier are usually considered to be the main causative factors in CRS. Epithelial-derived bioactive substances, such as cytokines, exosomes, and complements, play a vital role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity and contribute to the pathophysiological alterations of CRS. The phenomena of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), mucosal remodeling, and autophagy observed in CRS offer some novel insights into the pathogenesis of this disease. In addition, existing treatment options targeting disorder of sinonasal epithelium can help to relieve the main symptoms associated with CRS to some extent.ConclusionThe presence of a normal epithelium is fundamental for maintaining homeostasis in the nasal and paranasal sinuses. Here, we describe various aspects of the sinonasal epithelium and highlight the contributions of epithelial dysfunction to CRS pathogenesis. Our review provides sound evidence of the need for in-depth study of the pathophysiological alterations of this disease and for the development of novel epithelium-targeting alternative treatments

    Reduced Seasonal Coronavirus Antibody Responses in Children Following COVID-19 Mitigation Measures, The Netherlands

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    SARS-CoV-2 prevention and control measures did not only impact SARS-CoV-2 circulation, but also the timing and prevalence of other seasonal respiratory viruses. Especially in children, information on exposure and infections to seasonal coronaviruses as well as SARS-CoV-2 in the first year of the pandemic is largely lacking. Therefore, we set up a one-year serological survey in a large tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. We show that seasonal coronavirus seroprevalence significantly decreased in 2021 in children less than one year, most likely due to COVID-19 control measures. The SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in children and adolescents increased from 0.4% to 11.3%, the highest in adolescents. This implies higher exposure rates in adolescents as compared to the general population (>18 years old). It is clear that there have been significant changes in the circulation and subsequent immunity against most respiratory pathogens as a result of the mitigation measures. The implications on shorter as well as longer term are still largely unknown, but the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent control measures will continue to affect the dynamics of other pathogens

    Annual SHOT Report 2018

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    SHOT is affiliated to the Royal College of PathologistsAll NHS organisations must move away from a blame culture towards a just and learning culture. All clinical and laboratory staff should be encouraged to become familiar with human factors and ergonomics concepts. All transfusion decisions must be made after carefully assessing the risks and benefits of transfusion therapy. Collaboration and co-ordination among staff is vital

    A comprehensive analysis on the ecosystem services of Elaeocarpus L. (Elaeocarpaceae): a review

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    The Elaeocarpus is considered the largest genus in the family Elaeocarpaceae. It is commonly called ‘Rudraksha’ in India and has a noteworthy attachment with the Indians, mostly Hindus. The plant is known for its beneficial aspects and supply of various ecosystem services, particularly in medicinal sciences. The present study provides a comprehensive review of the genus Elaeocarpus for its ecosystem services in the context of human wellbeing. A literature survey was conducted from 1970 to 2020 on internet scientific databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science using strings such as, Elaeocarpus, Rudraksha, medicine, conservation, tradition, and services. One hundred two publications were considered for data extraction and finalising the review. Firstly, we classified the ecosystem services under respective classes as provided by MEA (2005), and the remaining benefits that didn’t fit under the classification were presented separately. It has been reported that Rudraksha delivers all categories of ecosystem services: provisioning, regulating, cultural, and supporting services. In addition, the Rudraksha plant owes a high status in medicinal science, ayurveda, and religious mythology. In the last five decades, studies were conducted on various species of Elaeocarpus for their beneficial aspects. It was found that Elaeocarpus plants have a vital role in ayurveda, pharmaceuticals, and pharmacological and astrological science. In addition, they have been used as food, firewood, timber, and the production of secondary metabolites and their role in cultural and religious dimensions are very clearly discussed. The provisioning and cultural services delivered by Rudraksha constitute only 30% and 10% of the services mentioned in MEA (2005). However, only a little research has been conducted on regulatory and supporting services provided by Rudraksha. Therefore, for a long-term sustainability and multifunctionality assessment, the extension of ecosystem services regarding individual plant’s (tree) services should be highly recommended. Hence, the present review investigates the scientific knowledge about the ecosystem services of the Elaeocarpus

    Anuário científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa - 2021

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    É com grande prazer que apresentamos a mais recente edição (a 11.ª) do Anuário Científico da Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa. Como instituição de ensino superior, temos o compromisso de promover e incentivar a pesquisa científica em todas as áreas do conhecimento que contemplam a nossa missão. Esta publicação tem como objetivo divulgar toda a produção científica desenvolvida pelos Professores, Investigadores, Estudantes e Pessoal não Docente da ESTeSL durante 2021. Este Anuário é, assim, o reflexo do trabalho árduo e dedicado da nossa comunidade, que se empenhou na produção de conteúdo científico de elevada qualidade e partilhada com a Sociedade na forma de livros, capítulos de livros, artigos publicados em revistas nacionais e internacionais, resumos de comunicações orais e pósteres, bem como resultado dos trabalhos de 1º e 2º ciclo. Com isto, o conteúdo desta publicação abrange uma ampla variedade de tópicos, desde temas mais fundamentais até estudos de aplicação prática em contextos específicos de Saúde, refletindo desta forma a pluralidade e diversidade de áreas que definem, e tornam única, a ESTeSL. Acreditamos que a investigação e pesquisa científica é um eixo fundamental para o desenvolvimento da sociedade e é por isso que incentivamos os nossos estudantes a envolverem-se em atividades de pesquisa e prática baseada na evidência desde o início dos seus estudos na ESTeSL. Esta publicação é um exemplo do sucesso desses esforços, sendo a maior de sempre, o que faz com que estejamos muito orgulhosos em partilhar os resultados e descobertas dos nossos investigadores com a comunidade científica e o público em geral. Esperamos que este Anuário inspire e motive outros estudantes, profissionais de saúde, professores e outros colaboradores a continuarem a explorar novas ideias e contribuir para o avanço da ciência e da tecnologia no corpo de conhecimento próprio das áreas que compõe a ESTeSL. Agradecemos a todos os envolvidos na produção deste anuário e desejamos uma leitura inspiradora e agradável.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Neuroanatomical and gene expression features of the rabbit accessory olfactory system. Implications of pheromone communication in reproductive behaviour and animal physiology

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    Mainly driven by the vomeronasal system (VNS), pheromone communication is involved in many species-specific fundamental innate socio-sexual behaviors such as mating and fighting, which are essential for animal reproduction and survival. Rabbits are a unique model for studying chemocommunication due to the discovery of the rabbit mammary pheromone, but paradoxically there has been a lack of knowledge regarding its VNS pathway. In this work, we aim at filling this gap by approaching the system from an integrative point of view, providing extensive anatomical and genomic data of the rabbit VNS, as well as pheromone-mediated reproductive and behavioural studies. Our results build strong foundation for further translational studies which aim at implementing the use of pheromones to improve animal production and welfare

    Multidrug-Resistant ESBL-Producing E. coli in Clinical Samples from the UK

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    Globally, cephalosporin therapy failure is a serious problem for infection control. One causative agent of cephalosporin-resistant infections is multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and/or plasmid-encoded AmpC (pAmpC) β-lactamases. We evaluated the occurrence of ESBL/pAmpC genetic determinants in phenotypically MDR E. coli isolated from clinical samples of blood, faeces, ear effusion, urine and sputum from a UK hospital. Phenotypic resistance profiling for 18 antibiotics (from seven classes) showed that 32/35 isolates were MDR, with resistance to 4–16 of the tested antibiotics. Of the isolates, 97.1% showed resistance to ampicillin, 71.4% showed resistance to co-amoxiclav, cefotaxime, ceftazidime and ceftiofur, and 68.5% showed resistance to cefquinome. blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaOXA-1 genes were detected in 23, 13 and 12 strains, respectively, and Intl1 was detected in 17 isolates. The most common subtypes among the definite sequence types were CTX-M-15 (40%) and TEM-1 (75%). No E. coli isolates carried pAmpC genes. Significant correlations were seen between CTX-M carriage and cefotaxime, ceftiofur, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefquinome resistance; between blaCTX-M, blaTEM and blaOXA-1 carriage and ciprofloxacin resistance; and between Intl1 carriage and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. Thus, MDR phenotypes may be conferred by a relatively small number of genes. The level and pattern of antibiotic resistance highlight the need for better antibiotic therapy guidelines, including reduced use and improved surveillance
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