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    CFD Analysis of the Effect of Heat Distribution on Different Heating Pad Piping Arrangements for Flexitank Application

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    Variations in piping arrangements of heating pad for flexitank applications causes a difference in the time required to completely liquidise the liquid during the discharging process. As reference, a conventional heating pad took about 48 hours to heat up the flexitank. There are many commercials heating pad used in flexitank applications to facilitate the discharging process of liquid. However, there are still uncertainty or limitation reference regarding the heating pad for flexitank application. One of the solutions to minimize the time taken for discharging processis identify the finest piping arrangement of heating pad. Based on the previous study, piping arrangement plays an important role for performance of the heating pad heat distribution. Thus, this paper aims to study the thermal behaviour of different heating pad arrangement for flexitank application with references to commercial arrangement of floor heating pad based on various inlet pressure using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation software. This study was done by comparing thermal analysis of three piping arrangement which is conventional arrangement, Serpentine arrangement, and Spiral arrangement. The geometry of heating pad was created using Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software, SolidWorks. The results have discussed some important components parameter that must be controlled for the system to function efficiently. These parameters include pressure distribution within the pipes, temperature distribution along the pipes, and piping arrangement patterns. The simulation results show that the Counterflow arrangement has a uniform temperature distribution between the inlet and outlet. The study concluded that counterflow arrangement generally the best arrangement among these three since the configuration allowing less pressure losses and better thermal distribution on flexitank and heating pad. This study is therefore useful for designers to explore more adequately the benefits of underfloor heating system on many application

    A comparative DFT study of electronic and optical properties of Pb/ Cd-doped LaVO4 and Pb/Cd-LuVO4 for electronic device applications

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    A First-principles study based on density functional theory was accomplished to examine the different properties of ABVO4 (A = Pb/Cd, B––La/Lu) materials such as structural, optical, and electronic properties. The band gap of Pb/Cd-doped LuVO4 is found to be remarkably and significantly decreased from 2.921 to 1.71eV as compared to a decrement of 3.455 to 2.650eV in Pb/Cd-doped LaVO4. Under the DFT study, Pb (Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) are appropriate materials for band gap decrement of LuVO4 and LaVO4. The nature of the band gap was found indirect moreover band gap indicated that materials are prominent semiconductors. Pb/Cd is doped at the vanadium (V) sites, which are more advantageous than the La/Lu sites. By capturing Pb/Cd at the V sites in LuVO4/ LaVO4, additional gamma points were incorporated into the electronic band gap energy (Eg). A significant decrement is found in the band gap as well as optical conductivity. After the substitution of different impurities of Pb/Cd the energy absorption peaks are increased. It is also examined that after doping of Pb/Cd optical conductivity shifted toward larger energy because of the band gap. Both Pb/Cd-doped LuVO4 and Pb/Cd-doped LaVO4 compounds have high optical conductivity, refractive index, and energy absorption moreover Pb/Cddoped LuVO4 is a more appropriate material as compared to Pb/Cd-doped LaVO4 for electronic device applications

    A Systematic Review of the Concrete Durability Incorporating Recycled Glass

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    : This systematic literature review (SLR) aims to present and analyze the recent research on the effect of recycled glass (RG) on the durability of concrete applications in terms of transport properties, chemical attack, alkali-silica reaction (ASR), and freeze/thaw (FT). RG could be utilized in concrete as a replacement or addition in three forms, namely glass powder (GP), glass aggregate (GA), and glass fiber (GF). The methodology of this study was based on a criterion for the selection process of reviewed studies to assess and synthesize the knowledge of the durability of RG in concrete. The articles were assessed and screened, then 114 review articles were selected. The direction of utilization of RG in concrete depends on the type, particle size, and pozzolanic performance. The valorization of RG had a positive impact on the durability of concrete; however, the mutual synergy of multiple substitutions with glass also had better results. Nowadays, fine glass aggregate (FGA) could be promoted to be used as a partial substitute for sand due to the easiness of recycling. Furthermore, GF is strongly encouraged to be used in fiber concrete. An analytical framework that highlights the durability improvement of glass-modified concrete is presented. The results suggested that it is technically feasible to utilize glass as a part of concrete in the production of durable concrete. It provides a higher resistance to transport properties and chemical attacks by providing an extended lifespan. In addition, RG plays a great role in FT action in cold climates while it does not have a significant impact on ASR, provided refinement of glass results in the reduction of ASR and thus overcomes the expansion and cracks of concrete. However, up to 20% GP and up to 30% fine glass aggregate (FGA) could be replaced with cement and aggregate, respectively, to achieve a positive effect on durability based on the W/C ratio provided, not compromising the strength

    Energy-Efficient Federated Learning With Resource Allocation for Green IoT Edge Intelligence in B5G

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    An edge intelligence-aided Internet-of-Things (IoT) network has been proposed to accelerate the response of IoT services by deploying edge intelligence near IoT devices. The transmission of data from IoT devices to the edge nodes leads to large network traffic in the wireless connections. Federated Learning (FL) is proposed to solve the high computational complexity by training the model locally on IoT devices and sharing the model parameters in the edge nodes. This paper focuses on developing an efficient integration of joint edge intelligence nodes depending on investigating an energy-efficient bandwidth allocation, computing Central Processing Unit (CPU) frequency, optimization transmission power, and the desired level of learning accuracy to minimize the energy consumption and satisfy the FL time requirement for all IoT devices. The proposal efficiently optimized the computation frequency allocation and reduced energy consumption in IoT devices by solving the bandwidth optimization problem in closed form. The remaining computational frequency allocation, transmission power allocation, and loss could be resolved with an Alternative Direction Algorithm (ADA) to reduce energy consumption and complexity at every iteration of FL time from IoT devices to edge intelligence nodes. The simulation results indicated that the proposed ADA can adapt the central processing unit frequency and power transmission control to reduce energy consumption at the cost of a small growth of FL time

    DEVELOPMENT OF WIND-SOLAR MAPS IN AQABA, JORDAN AS POTENTIAL SOURCES FOR POWER GENERATION

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    The potential for free, clean, and limitless energy from renewable sources has long been recognized. However, because of a lack of thorough wind and solar maps, expertise, and public understanding of the significance of these resources in the country, Jordan continues to rely on non-renewable sources for its energy needs. The main objective of this study is to analyze the potential of solar and wind energies as renewable resources for power generation. Weibull distribution function with two parameters and the Angstrom-Prescott model, respectively, are used in this study to offer estimates of the wind and solar energy in the coastal city of Jordan, Aqaba during a five-year period. According to the assessment of wind potential, the annual means of the shape and scale parameters at 10 m for the studied station varied between (1.65 to 1.73) and (4.42 to 4.86), respectively. During the dry season, the wind speed was seen to be stronger, while during the wet season, it was seen to be slower. The maximum power density is found to be in September with values of 622.81 W/m2 and 192.74 W/m2 for the elevations 80 m and 10 m, respectively. According to the forecast for solar potential in this area, the city's global solar radiation is promising for the production of solar energy. The maximum global solar radiation is found to be 8.3 KWh/m2 in June. Results also demonstrated that Aqaba city is suitable for wind and solar power generatio

    Fractal-fractional advection–diffusion–reaction equations by Ritz approximation approach

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    : In this work, we propose the Ritz approximation approach with a satisfier function to solve fractalfractional advection–diffusion–reaction equations. The approach reduces fractal-fractional advection–diffusion– reaction equations to a system of algebraic equations; hence, the system can be solved easily to obtain the numerical solution for fractal-fractional advection–diffusion–reaction equations. With only a few terms of two variables-shifted Legendre polynomials, this method is capable of providing high-accuracy solution for fractal-fractional advection–diffusion–reaction equations. Numerical examples show that this approach is comparable with the existing numerical method. The proposed approach can reduce the number of terms of polynomials needed for numerical simulation to obtain the solution for fractal-fractional advection–diffusion–reaction equations

    Background subtraction challenges in motion detection using Gaussian mixture model: a survey

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    Motion detection is becoming prominent for computer vision applications. The background subtraction method that uses the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is utilized frequently in camera or video settings. However, there is still more work that needs to be done to develop a reliable, accurate and high-performing technique due to various challenges. The degree of difficulty for this challenge is primarily determined by how the object to be detected is defined. It could be influenced by the changes in the object posture or deformations. In this context, we describe and bring together the most significant challenges faced by the background subtraction techniques based on GMM for dealing with a crucial background situation. Therefore, the findings of this study can be used to identify the most appropriate GMM version based on the crucial background situation

    PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYURETHANECLAY COMPOSITE DOPED WITH TREATED AND UNTREATED PU WASTE AS FILLER FOR SUBGRADE LAYER APPLICATIONS

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    One of the most efficient ways to enhance the geotechnical characteristics of soils is to use polyurethane waste as a filler. In this study, the PU waste was soaked in a 0.05 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution as an alkaline cleaner before being sieved to a size of 300 m. Then, the PU waste as filler was dried in microwaves and a drying oven. The PU clay composite samples were prepared at 0%, 2.5%, and 5% of PU waste filler loading namely PU waste untreated (PU-CCUn), PU waste treated by microwave (PU-CCTW), and PU waste treated by the oven (PU-CCTO), respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water absorption was used to examine the physical characteristics of PU clay composite with treated and untreated PU waste filler loading. According to the results, the functional group of PU clay composite samples shows no significant changes with the drying treatment. However, from SEM image exhibited the PU waste particle was mixed successfully in clay. The PU clay composite shows that 12% more water was absorbed by PU-CCUn than by PU-CCTO and PU-CCTM due to the bigger pore sizes. In summary, the risk of overheating and burning the PU waste as filler powder with the microwave processing method makes the prospective PU-CCTO the best potential in comparison to PU-CCUn and PU-CCTM. This demonstrated the effectiveness of the drying oven treatment method and its superior wettability to that of the microwave. In the future, it is recommended to utilize PU waste as filler that has been dried at a variable ratio of up to 10%

    Quantum Cryptography Experiment using Optical Devices

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    —The study of quantum cryptography is one of the great interest. A straightforward and reliable quantum experiment is provided in this paper. A half wave plate in linearly polarized light makes up a simplified polarization rotator. The polarization rotates twice as much as the half wave plate's fast axis' angle with the polarization plane when the half wave plate is rotated. Here, an experiment of message sharing is conducted to demonstrate quantum communication between parties. The unitary transformation is performed step by step using half-wave plates represented by the Mueller matrix. A simulation created using Python programming has been used to test the proposed protocol's implementation. Python was chosen because it can mathematically imitate the quantum state of superpositio

    A brief review of Bornean banded langur Presbytis chrysomelas (Müller, 1838) of Sarawak

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    The critically endangered Bornean banded langur (Presbytis chrysomelas) is exclusively found in Borneo. This species is classified among the world's 25 most endangered primate species. The geographical locations and distribution patterns of P. chrysomelas remain inadequately understood, and their taxonomic classification remains unclear. Although it was once abundant in Sarawak, the distribution of P. chrysomelas has become one of the most restricted among all Presbytis species. Presently, documented sightings of P. chrysomelas span across five specific locations in Sarawak: Samunsam Wildlife Sanctuary, Tanjung Datu National Park, Gunung Pueh National Park, Similajau National Park, and Maludam National Park. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present previous studies conducted on P. chrysomelas in Sarawak, elucidating its taxonomy, characteristics, distributions, important sites, research gaps, threats, and recommendations for further studies. Immediate conservation efforts and attention from the primatologist, relevant authorities and stakeholders are needed to prevent the localized extinction of P. chrysomelas

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