UTHM Institutional Repository

    Development of solid state illumination for parking lot application in reducing energy consumption

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    Nowadays, the development and improvement of solid state lighting (SSL) technology is accelerating to enhance its light output. Today, solid state lighting sources can be found in many applications that requiring colored (monochromatic) light, such as exit signs, traffic signals, and automobile brake lights. In the recent past, technological breakthroughs have started to establish SSL sources of white light. As investment leads to technology improvements as well as reductions in manufacturing costs, SSL may start to compete for market share with conventional light sources, such as incandescent, fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. This paper presents the potential of LED luminaries for outdoor lighting and focusing for parking lot application. A prototype model of parking lot LED lamp is constructed complete with the LED driver and the main objective is to achieve 20 percent energy saving compared the conventional parking lot lamp. The comparison is made between 100 Watt High Pressure Sodium Vapor (HPSV) parking lot lamp and the proposed LED lamp. The result obtained shows that it has a great potential the LED lamp will replace today’s lighting with this promising technology

    Stepped hairpin shape defected ground structure (SH-DGS) study

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    A new shape of defected ground structure (DGS) is introduced. The advantage over conventional dumb-bell shape DGS is, the physical dimensions and frequency response can be directly determined using its equivalent LC circuit. The equations can be extracted from Stepped Impedance Hairpin Resonator (SIHR) low pass filter study. They are similar in term of electrical characteristic. Conventional dumb-bell DGS use iterative trial and error method for the same purpose. It is time consuming and tend to lead to inaccurate design. This new DGS simplify and speed up design process significantly. Measurement and simulation data shows good relationship except at high frequency whereby the measured circuit suffers greater transmission loss. Higher dielectric constant material is suggested to reduce this effect

    General purpose vibration test system for electronic devices

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    Electronic devices that will be installed for automotive applications would possibly located in environments where vibrations environment might occur. It is therefore necessary to provide a vibration or shock test for a functionally test under severe vibration environments. A general purpose vibration test system has been developed to provide a testing platform for such testing requirements. A special shaker table has been designed and manufactured to be a platform base where an electronic device will be placed and excited by a vibration exciter. This shaker stable can be used in a frequency range of service up to 2500 Hz and will behave as a rigid body vibration. The vibration excitations from the shaker will be directly transmitted to the electronic device in a rigid body mode. The calculated first natural frequency of the shaker table is 2580 Hz. The resonance will not occur in the range of frequency of service (0-2500Hz). The vibration system can provide various tests: random test, shock test, road simulation test as well as sine chirp sweep function test, where constant velocity or acceleration can be done in frequency cyclic sweep from low to high frequency. The maximum acceleration is limited to 93g and the maximum dimension of the electronic device that can be placed in the shaker table is 15 cm square

    An application of artificial neural network classifier for medical diagnosis

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    In recent year, various models have been proposed for medical diagnosis, which broadly can be classified into physical-based approaches and statistical-based approaches. Uncertainty and imprecision are the most important problems in medical diagnosis, other many problems in medical diagnostic domains need to be represented at varying degrees of diagnosis to be solved. Moreover, classification is very important in computer-aided medical diagnosis. In this respect, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been successfully applied and with no doubt, they provide the ability and potentials to diagnose the diseases. Therefore, this research focuses on using ANN to classify medical data. ANN model with two layers of tunable weights were used and trained using four different backpropagation algorithms while are the gradient descent(GD), gradient descent with momentum(GDM), gradient descent with adaptive learning rate(GDA) and gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate(GDX). The network was used to classify three sets of medical data taken from UCI machine learning repository. The ability of all training algorithms tested and compared to each other on all datasets. Simulation results proved the ability of ANN for medical data classification with high accuracy and excellent performance and efficiency. This research provides the possibility of reduce costs and human resources. Increasing speed to find the results of medical analysis by using ANN also contributes in saving time for both physicians and patients

    Production management and improvement initiatives: case studies of two Malaysian manufacturing companies

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    Currently, there are numerous Production Management and Improvement (PMI) initiatives that can be used by the manufacturing companies such as Lean Manufacturing, Material Requirement Planning, Manufacturing Resource Planning, Six Sigma, Agile Manufacturing and Flexible Manufacturing System. Unfortunately, there are very limited study on the selection and implementation of multiple PMI initiatives especially in Malaysian manufacturing companies. The objectives of this study are to identify the main PMI initiatives currently being implemented by the case companies, investigate the strengths and limitations of the main PMI initiatives, investigate the processes involved in selecting and implementing multiple PMI initiatives, and finally to propose a framework for the selection and implementation of PMI initiatives. The method of data collection in this study involved eight semi-structured interviews, document reviews and observations. Two automotive companies were selected as case companies: (1) Permintex Furukawa Autoparts Sdn. Bhd. and (2) Yokohama Industries Bhd. From the data collected, it was found that the case companies implemented Lean Manufacturing, Material Requirement Planning, Manufacturing Resource Planning, and Six Sigma as their main PMI initiatives. Finally a framework for selection and implementation of PMI initiatives has been developed using the acronym ‘AIR’ which indicates (1) Analyse, (2) Implement, (3) Reflection; with intention to assist organisations in selecting and implementing appropriate PMI initiatives. This study enriches the pool of reference materials and findings related to the selection and implementation of PMI initiatives in the Malaysian manufacturing companies

    Optimal location of capacitor bank for power losses minimization

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    Power system consist of several components such are generations, transmission lines, distributions and loads. Each part consist of components that might encounter losses during their operations which then, can be divided into two categories: technical losses and non-technical losses. The main focus of this study is the technical losses that caused by the physical properties of components at transmission lines especially the MW loss and the Mvar loss. This thesis focused on the 9 Bus system analysis. Several studies have been conducted for this system which can be divided into two categories; The original setting ( stable system ) and the modified circuit for heavy loads setting where the loads capacity are increased to twice the value of the original setting. The purpose is to generate greater value of power losses. Thus, capacitor bank has been introduced to the system to minimize these losses. Several analysis have been done to determine the impact of installing the capacitor. Firstly, by varying the capacitor locations at all the busses in order to find the appropriate location of capacitor that might response to the power losses minimization the most. Record the MW losses and Mvar losses at each Busses and compare to the power losses of the original setting. This finally will show, which bus responses to the installed capacitor the most. Secondly, by varying the capacitor values installed at the effected bus in order to find the optimum range of the capacitor that will reduce Mvar losses the most. This Mvar range also can be calculated theoretically by applying an appropriate formula. The result is depending upon which capacitor value will decrease the power losses greatly. For acknowledgement, all the data and analysis are being done by the Powerworld Simulator Version 14 ( student version ). Finally, after completing all the analysis, the percentage of power losses reduction also can be determined theoretically . In fact, it can be concluded that many aspects to the capacitor compensation and its effects, depending on where capacitors get to be located, their sizes, and details of the distribution circuit

    If you think PBL is right for your students, think again

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    Problem based learning (PBL) has been widely practised and extensively researched in a variety of disciplines for over past four decades. However, its evidence of effectiveness still remains inconclusive. This literature review paper debates the effectiveness of problem-based learning on learners’ academic performance. Specifically, the discussion in this paper puts the focus on the basic concept of PBL and the effectiveness of PBL based on the existing research findings. Apart from that, cognitive load theory will be discussed as it is generally believed that cognitive load induced by any learning strategy has an impact on learner’s performance. The effectiveness of PBL from the perspective of Cognitive Load Theory will be presented. In addition, this paper also puts forward some theoretical ideas on when to ultilise PBL during the process of teaching and learning, and how the implementation of PBL can be improved by integrating with other learning strategies

    Plagiarisim: a review of why Malaysian students commit the academic dishonour

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    Plagiarism seems to have proliferated and become notoriously comparable to an epidemic in the academia, particularly in IHLs (institutions of higher learning). It is a problem which threatens the very core of academic sanctity, raising questions on the marred honour and integrity in a world generally presumed to be inherently virtuous and trustworthy. Whether plagiarism is committed and condone, consciously or unintentionally, the results are not very much different, with students being the very victims of the academic plague: distorted learning experience and undervalued learning outcomes. In addition, the internet has served as a two-edge sword cutting both ways, providing greater access to information and knowledge yet encouraging, though inevitably sometimes, increasing incidents of minor and major intellectual thefts. The circumstances notwithstanding, there is a need to review the culture of integrity or lack of in universities, where it encompasses the institution and system as a whole, the staff as the moral compass and the students seeking transparency and guidance in the matter. It is imperative to identify why students engage in plagiarism, how the current learning environment may have contributed to the rise in such misconduct, and what can be done to mitigate and circumvent plagiarism before it grows out of hand. A good grasp of the ‘whys’ and ‘hows’ can lead to the formulation of effective strategies and solutions, i.e. the ‘whats’. This paper explores the reasons students plagiarize in Malaysian IHLs, particularly the public universities

    A study of crashworthiness characteristic of woven kenaf fabric reinforced composites tube

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    In recent year, rapid growth of manufacturing sector cause adverse effect to the environment due to the use of conventional material. This situation draws the attention of researcher to study on natural materials as an alternative material in manufacturing industry. In this research, a study has been conducted on capability of kenaf fabric reinforced polyester (KFRP) as an energy absorber. There are 9 different parameter of KFRP specimen with geometrical ratio (R) of length to diameter (L/D) 1, 1.5 and 2 with 3 layers (N) of kenaf woven. Compression test has conducted to the specimens in order to identify the peak load and crush force efficiency as crashworthiness characteristic. The result shown that increasing number of plies (N) is linearly correlated with increasing of peak load. Specimen R2-N3 and R1.5-N2 shows the highest peak load, 47.53kN and crush force efficiency, 0.79 respectively. Besides that, specimens were also studied on energy absorption capability and failure mode based on graph and observation. It shows that, higher ratio of geometric (R) and layers of woven kenaf effect increasing the capability of the specimens to absorb energy. Specimens R2-N3 shows the highest absorbed energy with 4357.04 J. For failure mode observation, all specimens show the same mood failure which is crushed in a progressive manner. In conclusion, the number of plies and geometric ratio affects the capability of a specimen to absorb energy

    A comparative analysis between two system calendars in Islamic banking system

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    Islamic Banking (IBg) in Malaysia continues to grow rapidly and Malaysia is considered to be one of the most advance developed countries among the other Muslim countries that employs this banking system. Concurrently, Islamic Housing Finance (IHF) in Malaysia has been running almost 30 years, began when Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) was established in 1983. Then it allowed other Islamic banks (IB) such as Bank Muamalat Malaysia Berhad (BMMB), Maybank Islamic, CIMB Islamic, AmIslamic Bank and so forth to employ the same concept. However, the practices of IHF still have some issues on compliance with Islamic principles such as riba (usury), maysir (gambling), and gharar (uncertainty). Actually, the other issue is on calendar as a basis of accounting system. Quran Surah At-Taubah: 36-37 depicts that there is a clear guidance for Muslims to use the Islamic Calendar (IC) for his or her mundane and spiritual lives. Contextually, calendar is a system to organising days for religious, social, commercial or administrative purposes. During this time, all IB in Malaysia are using Gregorian Calendar (GC) as the basis of accounting system. GC is a solar year, has 365 days and leap years to the days of 366. Meanwhile, IC is a lunar year and has 354 or 355 days. Interestingly, IC is shorter than GC and this would affect the loan particularly mortgage repayment of Islamic Housing Finance (IHF). Therefore, this paper will discuss and compare IHF in IC and GC particularly to those who taking loan by mortgaging the property
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