694,965 research outputs found

    The Effect of Quadrature Errors in the Computation of L^2 Piecewise Polynomial Approximations

    Get PDF
    In this paper we investigate the L^2 piecewise polynomial approximation problem. L^2 bounds for the derivatives of the error in approximating sufficiently smooth functions by polynomial splines follow immediately from the analogous results for polynomial spline interpolation. We derive L^2 bounds for the errors introduced by the use of two types of quadrature rules for the numerical computation of L^2 piecewise polynomial approximations. These bounds enable us to present some asymptotic results and to examine the consistent convergence of appropriately chosen sequences of such approximations. Some numerical results are also included

    Resource-Saving Technologies of Treatment of Polluted Washing Water for Transport Companies

    Full text link

    The Patent Quality Control Process: Can We Afford An (Rationally) Ignorant Patent Office?

    Get PDF
    This paper considers patent granting as a two-tiered process, which consists of patent office examination (public enforcement) and court challenges (private enforcement). It argues that, when the patent-holder has private information about the patent validity, (i) a weak patent is more likely to be settled and thus escape court challenges than a strong patent; and (ii) when the economy suffers from the low patent quality problem, a tighter examination by the patent office may strengthen private scrutiny over a weak patent. Both work against Lemley (2001)’s hypothesis of a “rationally ignorant” patent office

    The Responsibility of the RuleMaker: Comparative Approaches to Patent Administration Reform

    Get PDF
    Patent administrators across the globe currently face the most challenging operating environment they have ever known. Soaring application rates, lean fiscal policies and an increasingly ambitious range of patentable subject matter are among the difficulties faced by the world\u27s leading patent offices. These trends have resulted in persistent concerns over the quality of issued patents. Responding to recent writings questioning the value of maintaining high levels of patent quality, Professor Jay Thomas asserts both that patent quality matters, and that increasing the responsibilities of patent applicants provides a fair and efficient mechanism for improving patent office work product. This Article then assesses recent reform agendas pursued by the European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and U.S. Patent and Trademark Office that have elevated applicant obligations. After distilling broader policy trends from these distinct programs, Professor Thomas presents several proposals for patent administration reform

    The Design of Post-Grant Patent Challenges

    Get PDF
    This paper proposes a patent challenge mechanism with partial patent rights previously granted to the patent-holder as the challenge reward. Transferring patent rights to a successful challenger raises the incentive to search for patent-defeating prior art, and, after the discovery of the information, helps deter collusion between the patent-holder and the challenger. It also reduces costly opportunistic patenting and therefore improves patent application quality. However, from an ex post point of view, over-search ensues when the collusion problem is severe. The optimal re-allocation of patent rights, then, calls for a careful balance between these costs and benefits

    What’s So Special About Patent Law?

    Get PDF
    The widespread belief that patent law is special has shaped the development of patent law into one of the most specialized areas of the law today. The belief in patent law’s exceptionalism manifests itself as two related presumptions with respect to the judiciary: first, that generalist judges who do not have patent law expertise cannot effectively decide patent cases, and second, that judges can develop necessary expertise through repeated experience with patent cases. Congress showed that it acquiesced to both views when it created the Federal Circuit and the Patent Pilot Program. In recent years, however, the Supreme Court has reminded us that the judiciary’s difficulty with patent cases is not the law, but is instead that patent cases often involve difficult subject matter, which sometimes requires technical or scientific expertise. While Congress’s early attempts to deal with these difficulties focused on courts with legal―rather than technical―expertise, the Supreme Court’s recent pronouncements suggest that they should have been doing the reverse. Moreover, to the extent that it is the underlying technology that makes patent cases difficult, that commends the use of an administrative, rather than a judicial, solution. One potentially viable answer to the judiciary’s problem with patent law has already been partly implemented in the form of the recently created Patent Trial and Appeal Board. This Article proposes expansion of that solution by making that new entity the exclusive forum for deciding issues of patent validity

    The Uneasy Case for Patent Federalism

    Get PDF
    Nationwide uniformity is often considered an essential feature of the patent system, necessary to fulfill that system’s disclosure and incentive purposes. In the last few years, however, more than half the states have enacted laws that seek to disrupt this uniformity by making it harder for patent holders to enforce their patents. There is an easy case to be made against giving states greater authority over the patent system: doing so would threaten to disrupt the system’s balance between innovation incentives and a robust public domain and would permit rent seeking by states that disproportionately produce or consume innovation. There is, nevertheless, an uneasy case that this particular form of patent federalism may be a good thing. The federal patent system has systemic flaws that lead to low-quality patents, nuisance patent litigation, and patent trolls exploiting asymmetric bargaining power. And efforts to address these flaws have faltered, or have had limited effects, due to public-choice dynamics in the patent system, so the scope of patent protections has expanded over time without regard to the system’s purpose of encouraging innovation. States may help address some of these problems not in spite of, but because of, their own flaws. States have their own public-choice dynamics that happen to offset some of the flaws of the federal system. State anti-patent laws have been driven largely by small businesses and local small-business groups, which, unlike most patent holders, have preexisting influence in state government. And the laws they have crafted using this influence are well-targeted to affect only the most troublesome patent cases: nuisance cases, cases asserting low-quality patents, and cases targeting end users. States pushing back with anti-patent laws, then, may represent an effective second-best solution to the problem of harmful patent assertions. Moreover, recognizing the dynamics that led to these laws may provide helpful insights in designing federal patent reforms

    Collusion and Collective Action in the Patent System: A Proposal for Patent Bounties

    Get PDF
    Persistent commentary contends that the Patent Office is issuing patents that appropriate public domain concepts at an alarming frequency. Complaints of low patent quality enjoy growing resonance with regard to business methods, computer software, and other inventions for which patents were not traditionally sought. In this article, Professor Jay Thomas explains how the judiciary\u27s lenient view of patentable subject matter and utility standards, along with miserly congressional funding policies, have rendered the Patent Office an increasingly porous agency. Professor Thomas next reviews existing proposals for improving patent quality, including the conventional wisdom that adoption of an opposition system will contribute meaningfully to the solution of our patent quality problem. Exploring the political economy of patent challenges, Professor Thomas reasons that oppositions do little to solve collective action problems, the possibility of collusion between the prior art holder and patentee, and the existence of the first inventor defense. Professor Thomas instead proposes that the Patent Office recruit members of the public to act as private patent examiners. By awarding prior art informants with a bounty assessed against applicants, the Patent Office can restore order to the patent system and reduce its social costs

    The Uneasy Case for Patent Federalism

    Get PDF
    Nationwide uniformity is often considered an essential feature of the patent system, necessary to fulfill that system’s disclosure and incentive purposes. In the last few years, however, more than half the states have enacted laws that seek to disrupt this uniformity by making it harder for patent holders to enforce their patents. There is an easy case to be made against giving states greater authority over the patent system: doing so would threaten to disrupt the system’s balance between innovation incentives and a robust public domain and would permit rent seeking by states that disproportionately produce or consume innovation. There is, nevertheless, an uneasy case that this particular form of patent federalism may be a good thing. The federal patent system has systemic flaws that lead to low-quality patents, nuisance patent litigation, and patent trolls exploiting asymmetric bargaining power. And efforts to address these flaws have faltered, or have had limited effects, due to public-choice dynamics in the patent system, so the scope of patent protections has expanded over time without regard to the system’s purpose of encouraging innovation. States may help address some of these problems not in spite of, but because of, their own flaws. States have their own public-choice dynamics that happen to offset some of the flaws of the federal system. State anti-patent laws have been driven largely by small businesses and local small-business groups, which, unlike most patent holders, have preexisting influence in state government. And the laws they have crafted using this influence are well-targeted to affect only the most troublesome patent cases: nuisance cases, cases asserting low-quality patents, and cases targeting end users. States pushing back with anti-patent laws, then, may represent an effective second-best solution to the problem of harmful patent assertions. Moreover, recognizing the dynamics that led to these laws may provide helpful insights in designing federal patent reforms

    Optical self-switching effects in Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    Get PDF
    Development of modern optical fiber networks puts an increasing demand on the optical hardware. All-optical signal processing components enable the highest switching rates and allow all-optical regeneration of pulse streams without converting the optical signal into electrical current. The subject of our research is self-switching in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and its applications in optical telecommunication networks. In this device, light injected in one of the input ports is unequally distributed over the two interferometer arms. Due to the intensity dependent refractive index in the interferometer arms, there can be a nonlinear phase shift induced between the optical signals of unequal intensities. The two signals therefore interfere destructively or constructively depending on the input power: in this way we obtain nonlinear self-switching. Two mechanisms of nonlinear phase shifting were considered: active, based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), and passive, based on quantum dots (QDs). Interferometers of two types were developed: 2-to-2 (two input ports and two output ports) and 2-to-1 (two input ports and one output port). The 2-to-2 SOA-MZIs based on self-switching have been investigated for two applications. One of them is the pattern effect compensator. If SOAs are employed for all-optical signal amplification, e.g. in optical access networks, an unwanted pulse distortion (known also as the pattern effect) takes place, as a result of the SOA gain saturation. Our component allows pattern-free amplification of the optical signals at bitrates up to 20 Gb/s. At 10 Gb/s it shows an extended input power range (up to 7 dB improvement) and comparable gain, which makes it suitable to be used as an optical amplifier. Another application of the 2-to-2 SOA-MZI is a 2R-regenerator. Optical amplifiers used in long distance optical links add noise to the optical signal, causing signal degradation. The signal can be regenerated by passing it through an optical gate with a nonlinear transfer function. The 2-to-2 SOA-MZI has such a nonlinear transfer function. The regeneration capabilities were demonstrated at 2.5 Gb/s by an improvement of the receiver sensitivity of about 2.5 dB. The dynamic characterization of the chips was carried out in a close cooperation with the research group COM at the Technical University of Denmark within the ePIXnet "network of excellence". The 2-to-1 MZI based on self-switching can be used as a low-loss optical combiner. An essential function in optical fiber networks is the combining of optical signals. A serious disadvantage of the conventional type of combiners used in the networks is that they let only half of the power (3 dB) through. In order to compensate for this loss, passive optical combiners are often used in combination with an in-line SOA. The first realization of the low-loss optical combiner uses SOAs as active phase shifters. Such an active low-loss combiner shows an improvement of transmission of over 2 dB compared to a conventional combiner with an in-line SOA. It is therefore expected that the output optical signal-to-noise ratio of the self-switching SOA-MZI is more than 2 dB better than that of a conventional combiner with an in-line SOA. While for the pattern effect compensator and the 2R-regenerator SOAs are used not only for inducing the nonlinear phase shift, but also for sufficient amplification, for the low-loss optical combiner the preferred nonlinear effects should be passive: combination of the signal is a passive function. Therefore, the second realization is based on a novel material, quantum dots. QDs provide improved all-optical nonlinearities resulting in a very small switching energy and large refractive index changes. Such a passive 2-to-1 QD-MZI based on self-switching showed an improvement up to 1.7 dB with respect to a conventional combiner. These improvements have a huge effect on e.g. the power budget in passive optical networks, where a large number of splitting stages are required. The Mach-Zehnder interferometers were realized in the InP/InGaAsP semiconductor material system, which is perfectly suitable for the integration of the photonic integrated circuits for the telecommunication applications. In order to realize both active components (such as e.g. SOAs) and passive components (such as e.g. waveguides, couplers), an active-passive integration technique was applied. This integration was realized in a close cooperation between JDS Uniphase Eindhoven and the COBRA Research Institute. It employs a three-step metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy regrowth process. The quantum dot material was grown within the COBRA Research Institute. Our MZIs use a ridge waveguide design, for which a reactive ion etching process was developed in the COBRA cleanroom. As a result of photonic integration our integrated Mach-Zehnder interferometers have very small dimensions: less than a square millimeter
    corecore