4,449,707 research outputs found

    A Comparison of Multi-instance Learning Algorithms

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    Motivated by various challenging real-world applications, such as drug activity prediction and image retrieval, multi-instance (MI) learning has attracted considerable interest in recent years. Compared with standard supervised learning, the MI learning task is more difficult as the label information of each training example is incomplete. Many MI algorithms have been proposed. Some of them are specifically designed for MI problems whereas others have been upgraded or adapted from standard single-instance learning algorithms. Most algorithms have been evaluated on only one or two benchmark datasets, and there is a lack of systematic comparisons of MI learning algorithms. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of MI learning algorithms that aims to compare their performance and find a suitable way to properly address different MI problems. First, it briefly reviews the history of research on MI learning. Then it discusses five general classes of MI approaches that cover a total of 16 MI algorithms. After that, it presents empirical results for these algorithms that were obtained from 15 datasets which involve five different real-world application domains. Finally, some conclusions are drawn from these results: (1) applying suitable standard single-instance learners to MI problems can often generate the best result on the datasets that were tested, (2) algorithms exploiting the standard asymmetric MI assumption do not show significant advantages over approaches using the so-called collective assumption, and (3) different MI approaches are suitable for different application domains, and no MI algorithm works best on all MI problems

    Multiple roles of motor imagery during action observation

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    Over the last 20 years, the topics of action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) have been largely studied in isolation from each other, despite the early integrative account by Jeannerod (1994, 2001). Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate enhanced cortical activity when AO and MI are performed concurrently (“AO+MI”), compared to either AO or MI performed in isolation. These results indicate the potentially beneficial effects of AO+MI, and they also demonstrate that the underlying neurocognitive processes are partly shared. We separately review the evidence for MI and AO as forms of motor simulation, and present two quantitative literature analyses that indeed indicate rather little overlap between the two bodies of research. We then propose a spectrum of concurrent AO+MI states, from congruent AO+MI where the contents of AO and MI widely overlap, over coordinative AO+MI, where observed and imagined action are different but can be coordinated with each other, to cases of conflicting AO+MI. We believe that an integrative account of AO and MI is theoretically attractive, that it should generate novel experimental approaches, and that it can also stimulate a wide range of applications in sport, occupational therapy, and neurorehabilitation

    Enhancement of Gap Junction Function During Acute Myocardial Infarction Modifies Healing and Reduces Late Ventricular Arrhythmia Susceptibility

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    Objectives: To investigate the effects of enhancing gap junction (GJ) coupling during acute myocardial infarction (MI) on the healed infarct scar morphology and late post-MI arrhythmia susceptibility. Background: Increased heterogeneity of myocardial scarring after MI is associated with greater arrhythmia susceptibility. We hypothesized that short-term enhancement of GJ coupling during acute MI can produce more homogeneous infarct scars, reducing late susceptibility to post-MI arrhythmias. Methods: Following arrhythmic characterisation of the rat 4-week post-MI model (n=24), a further 27 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to receive rotigaptide to enhance GJ coupling (n=13) or saline control (n=14) by osmotic minipump immediately prior to, and for the first 7 days following surgical MI. At 4 weeks post-MI, hearts were explanted for ex vivo programmed electrical stimulation (PES) and optical mapping. Heterogeneity of infarct border zone (IBZ) scarring was quantified by histomorphometry. Results: Despite no detectable difference in infarct size at 4 weeks post-MI, rotigaptide-treated hearts had reduced arrhythmia susceptibility during PES (Inducibility score: rotigaptide 2.40.8, control 5.00.6, p=0.02) and less heterogeneous IBZ scarring (standard deviation of IBZ Complexity Score: rotigaptide 1.10.1, control 1.40.1, p=0.04), associated with an improvement in IBZ conduction velocity (rotigaptide 43.13.4 cm/s, control 34.82.0 cm/s, p=0.04). Conclusions: Enhancement of GJ coupling for only 7 days at the time of acute MI produced more homogeneous IBZ scarring and reduced arrhythmia susceptibility at 4 weeks post-MI. Short-term GJ modulation at the time of MI may represent a novel treatment strategy to modify the healed infarct scar morphology and reduce late post-MI arrhythmic risk

    A review of multi-instance learning assumptions

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    Multi-instance (MI) learning is a variant of inductive machine learning, where each learning example contains a bag of instances instead of a single feature vector. The term commonly refers to the supervised setting, where each bag is associated with a label. This type of representation is a natural fit for a number of real-world learning scenarios, including drug activity prediction and image classification, hence many MI learning algorithms have been proposed. Any MI learning method must relate instances to bag-level class labels, but many types of relationships between instances and class labels are possible. Although all early work in MI learning assumes a specific MI concept class known to be appropriate for a drug activity prediction domain; this ‘standard MI assumption’ is not guaranteed to hold in other domains. Much of the recent work in MI learning has concentrated on a relaxed view of the MI problem, where the standard MI assumption is dropped, and alternative assumptions are considered instead. However, often it is not clearly stated what particular assumption is used and how it relates to other assumptions that have been proposed. In this paper, we aim to clarify the use of alternative MI assumptions by reviewing the work done in this area

    Short term doxycycline treatment induces sustained improvement in myocardial infarction border zone contractility.

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    Decreased contractility in the non-ischemic border zone surrounding a MI is in part due to degradation of cardiomyocyte sarcomeric components by intracellular matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). We recently reported that MMP-2 levels were increased in the border zone after a MI and that treatment with doxycycline for two weeks after MI was associated with normalization of MMP-2 levels and improvement in ex-vivo contractile protein developed force in the myocardial border zone. The purpose of the current study was to determine if there is a sustained effect of short term treatment with doxycycline (Dox) on border zone function in a large animal model of antero-apical myocardial infarction (MI). Antero-apical MI was created in 14 sheep. Seven sheep received doxycycline 0.8 mg/kg/hr IV for two weeks. Cardiac MRI was performed two weeks before, and then two and six weeks after MI. Two sheep died prior to MRI at six weeks from surgical/anesthesia-related causes. The remaining 12 sheep completed the protocol. Doxycycline induced a sustained reduction in intracellular MMP-2 by Western blot (3649±643 MI+Dox vs 9236±114 MI relative intensity; p = 0.0009), an improvement in ex-vivo contractility (65.3±2.0 MI+Dox vs 39.7±0.8 MI mN/mm2; p<0.0001) and an increase in ventricular wall thickness at end-systole 1.0 cm from the infarct edge (12.4±0.6 MI+Dox vs 10.0±0.5 MI mm; p = 0.0095). Administration of doxycycline for a limited two week period is associated with a sustained improvement in ex-vivo contractility and an increase in wall thickness at end-systole in the border zone six weeks after MI. These findings were associated with a reduction in intracellular MMP-2 activity

    Circulating inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers are associated with risk of myocardial infarction and coronary death, but not angina pectoris, in older men

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    Aims: The extent to which hemostatic and inflammatory biomarkers are related to angina pectoris as compared with myocardial infarction (MI) remains uncertain. We examined the relationship between a wide range of inflammatory and hemostatic biomarkers, including markers of activated coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelial dysfunction and viscosity, with incident myocardial infarction (MI) or coronary heart disease (CHD) death and incident angina pectoris uncomplicated by MI or CHD death in older men. Methods: A prospective study of 3217 men aged 60-79 years with no baseline CHD (angina or MI) and who were not on warfarin, followed up for 7 years during which there were 198 MI/CHD death cases and 220 incident uncomplicated angina cases. Results: Inflammatory biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, fibrinogen], plasma viscosity and hemostatic biomarkers [von Willebrand factor (VWF) and fibrin D-dimer] were associated with a significant increased risk of MI/CHD death but not with uncomplicated angina even after adjustment for age and conventional risk factors. Adjustment for CRP attenuated the relationships between VWF, fibrin D-dimer and plasma viscosity with MI/CHD death. Comparisons of differing associations with risk of MI/CHD deaths and uncomplicated angina were significant for the inflammatory markers (P < 0.05) and marginally significant for fibrin D-dimer (P = 0.05). In contrast, established risk factors including blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol were associated with both MI/CHD death and uncomplicated angina. Conclusion: Circulating biomarkers of inflammation and hemostasis are associated with incident MI/CHD death but not incident angina uncomplicated by MI or CHD death in older men

    Superfluid, Mott-Insulator, and Mass-Density-Wave Phases in the One-Dimensional Extended Bose-Hubbard Model

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    We use the finite-size density-matrix-renormalization-group (FSDMRG) method to obtain the phase diagram of the one-dimensional (d=1d = 1) extended Bose-Hubbard model for density ρ=1\rho = 1 in the UVU-V plane, where UU and VV are, respectively, onsite and nearest-neighbor interactions. The phase diagram comprises three phases: Superfluid (SF), Mott Insulator (MI) and Mass Density Wave (MDW). For small values of UU and VV, we get a reentrant SF-MI-SF phase transition. For intermediate values of interactions the SF phase is sandwiched between MI and MDW phases with continuous SF-MI and SF-MDW transitions. We show, by a detailed finite-size scaling analysis, that the MI-SF transition is of Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) type whereas the MDW-SF transition has both KT and two-dimensional-Ising characters. For large values of UU and VV we get a direct, first-order, MI-MDW transition. The MI-SF, MDW-SF and MI-MDW phase boundaries join at a bicritical point at (U,V)=(8.5±0.05,4.75±0.05)U, V) = (8.5 \pm 0.05, 4.75 \pm 0.05).Comment: 10 pages, 15 figure

    Abdominal functional electrical stimulation to enhance mechanical insufflation-exsufflation

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    Context: Respiratory complications, attributed to the build-up of secretions in the airway, are a leading cause of rehospitalisation for the tetraplegic population. Previously, we observed that the application of Abdominal Functional Electrical Stimulation (AFES) improved cough function and increased demand for secretion removal, suggesting AFES may aid secretion clearance. Clinically, secretion clearance is commonly achieved by using Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation (MI-E) to simulate a cough. In this study the feasibility of combining AFES with MI-E is evaluated. Findings: AFES was successfully combined with MI-E at eight fortnightly assessment sessions conducted with one sub-acute participant with tetraplegia. By using the signal from a pressure sensor, integrated with the MI-E device, AFES was correctly applied in synchrony with MI-E with an accuracy of 96.7%. Acute increases in exhaled volume and peak flow were observed during AFES assisted MI-E, compared to MI-E alone, at six of eight assessment sessions. Conclusion: The successful integration of AFES with MI-E at eight assessment sessions demonstrates the feasibility of this technique. The acute increases in respiratory function observed at the majority of assessment sessions generate the hypothesis that AFES assisted MI-E may be more effective for secretion clearance than MI-E alone

    Evaluating Motivational Interviewing in the Physician Assistant Curriculum

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    Purpose Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based technique that enables clinicians to help patients modify health behaviors. Although MI is an essential tool for physician assistants (PAs), the extent to which it is addressed in PA curricula in the United States is unknown. This study is a comprehensive description of MI education in PA programs in the United States. Methods Data are from the 2014 Physician Assistant Education Association Annual Program Survey. Descriptive statistics were conducted on de-identified data from all 186 PA programs in the United States. Results Of the 186 PA programs surveyed, 72.58% (n = 135) reported at least one course providing MI training. Availability of courses providing training in skills essential to the MI process varied. Having a course with verbal communication training was most frequently endorsed, and having a course with training in developing discrepancy was least frequently endorsed. The most popular teaching modality was lecture (84.95%, n = 158), whereas only 41.40% (n = 77) and 58.60% (n = 109) reported role play with evaluation and standardized patient exercises with evaluation, respectively. Conclusions More than 70% of programs included at least one course in their curriculum that provided training in MI, suggesting that PA programs recognize the importance of MI. Instruction in change talk was not provided in nearly half of the programs. Role-play and standardized patient exercises with evaluation were underused methods despite their proven efficacy in MI education. As the first comprehensive benchmark of MI education for PAs, this study shows that although most programs address MI, opportunities exist to improve MI training in PA programs in the United States
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