380 research outputs found

    Late Holocene riparian vegetation dynamics, environmental changes, and human impact in the Harapan forest of Sumatra, Indonesia

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    Riparian wetland ecosystems provide important ecological services but are also vulnerable to climate change and human activities. To understand the influence of natural factors (e.g. climate change, flooding, drought) and human activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as to support management strategies, reconstructions of past vegetation and environmental changes are needed. To achieve this, we conducted a multi-proxy paleoecological analysis, including pollen and spores, macro-charcoal and radiocarbon dating, on a sediment core taken from a riparian area in the Harapan forest of Sumatra. Three distinct periods were identified: i) AD 1100 – 1400: Upland and swamp forest with riparian and herbaceous vegetation, possibly part of a riparian buffer zone (e.g. riverbank), was present in the study area under a stronger dry season regime; ii) AD 1400 – 1870: freshwater swamps expanded to the study site; iii) later, from AD 1870 to present, upland forests dominated in the study area with a strong dry season. The presence of cereal cultivation from AD 1300 – 1450, and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) since the mid-19th century AD indicates the presence of small-scale agriculture in the study area. This study of riparian vegetation dynamics and environmental changes in the Harapan forest of Sumatra shows the development from a riparian forest to a freshwater swamp and upland forest under the impact of climate change and human activities

    Aksi Kewargaan Membela Hak Ekologi Warga Trenggalek: Analisis Ideologis, Lingkungan, dan Teologis

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    The background of this research aims to publish two reasons. First, to show a new perspective of common opinion about the social movement that is based on the class struggle. In this research, the environmental movement is run by the ecological ideology, spirituality, and theology motives. Second, the protests to reject the mining exploitation agenda are not to fight the state nor hinder the development agenda. However, these are the acts of citizenship as a part of participation in a democratic country. Based on the two points above, the research adapts two concepts those are the acts of citizenship from Engin Isin and humanistic Islam from Anna Gade. The data mining process uses ethnographic or observational participatory method that has done in the field of movement as become part of them. The discussion divides the actors of movement into three categories, two of them are Islamic-based organization and the left one is Javanese spiritual group. Each of them works on their own way to defend the ecological rights, but they all have the similar objectives of movement that is ecological sustainability. To develop the study of human rights movement in Indonesia, the approach of ethnography study needs to be deepened and doubled so that the local perspective about their own construction about rights could be mapped.Penelitian ini dilatarbelakangi dan bertujuan atas dua hal. Pertama, menunjukkan hal baru dari  pandangan umum yang menganggap bahwa gerakan-gerakan menolak pembangunan pemerintah hanya dilandasi alasan ekonomi daripada ideologi lingkungan, spiritualitas, dan teologi. Kedua, aksi-aksi protes ini bukan untuk melawan negara dan menghambat rencana pembangunan, tetapi ini merupakan aksi kewargaan dalam sistem demokrasi. Berdasarkan dua poin di atas, penelitian ini meminjam konsep aksi kewargaan dari Engin Isin dan humanisme Islam dari Anna Gade. Pengambilan datanya dilakukan memakai metode observasi partisipatif dengan terjun langsung menjadi bagian dari anggota gerakan lingkungan. Pembahasan dalam penelitian dilakukan dengan membedah dua organisasi Islam dan satu kelompok spiritual sebagai pelaku dari aksi kewargaan. Masing-masing dari ketiganya menunjukkan cara perjuangan hak lingkungan yang berbeda namun punya tujuan serupa bagi keberlanjutan ekologi. Pembacaan gerakan perjuangan hak asasi manusia menggunakan pendekatan etnografis perlu diperdalam dan diperbanyak supaya perspektif lokal dapat muncul ke permukaan

    The Living Archive as Pedagogy: A Conceptual Case Study of Northern Uganda

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    The Living Archive as Pedagogy emerges from Northern Uganda’s experience of war 1986- 2008, between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Uganda People’s Defense Force previously named the National Resistance Army. This period of war and post-war has been a difficult experience where finding solutions and mechanisms for transition or justice remain complex, restricted, delayed and consequently concealing the reality of lived marginalization from below. The Acholi of Northern Uganda went through predatory atrocities, painful humiliation and unwilled cohabitations with their oppressors during war and post-war. The study explores how the interlinking of archives and pedagogy as independent disciplines can extend possibilities for more transformative education horizons in bottom-up, post-conflict expressions. The study is immersed through a conceptual and theoretical framing in the boundaries of archiving and pedagogy, to understand how the war constructs Acholi’s lived experience in multiple complex ways. While the Acholi re-orient their lives post- war, we recognize their attention in affirming their human agency, ordering of new and different meanings, desiring a different liberation in post-conflict where responsibility in contexts of “up againstness” validates their dwelling and being in spaces that exclude them. The research acknowledges that pedagogy and archiving studies in post-conflict, needs restructuring to challenge the preserving of external and dominant epistemological purviews that order post-conflict reconstruction life. These traditions exclude the experiences of survivor-victims, are tone deaf to community-based groups articulations of post-conflict repair, and neither does lived experiences of the everyday gets organized as an outcome for knowledge. This is discussed at length, as the research responds to its central question of how living archive as pedagogy can offer a transformative education discourse. The conclusion of the study emphasizes self-representation through transformative knowledge positions of I am whom I am, Where I am, Where I Speak, and Where I think. These positions articulate a self-understanding that supports rehistrocizing of post-conflict society as a body resisting exclusion in dominant knowledge formation and institutional omissions. There is evidence of the research foregrounding the formation of person-hood from experiences of ‘up againstness” and knowledge/under-stand[ing] from below. The research facilitates a hermeneutical encounter with specific inscribed bodies of post-conflict experience, the Acholi and Wanjiku whose bodies archive a horizon of possibilities if a different and difficult reading vii of the world is done from locations of struggle to produce consciousness of re-becoming, or returning to the human. These pedagogical experience positions Acholi and Wanjiku as educators, and their lives a living archive. We the readers are invited to a learning process as willing ‘hearers’ of Acholi and Wanjiku testimony, to own responsibility as our practice to ensure they appear in the world to say their truth, as they defy conditions of their oppression.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Education, School of Education Research and Engagement, 202

    The Nawat Language Revitalization in El Salvador and How Its Digital Activism Transcends Borders

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    In this research project I seek to show how digital activism for Nawat revitalization can transcend beyond the Salvadoran borders. The goal is to show how the revitalization of Nawat can have a better chance to be successful thanks to technology. Nawat is the last indigenous language in El Salvador, and its position within Salvadoran society has been uncertain for many years. Thus, I aim to show how technological efforts can help revitalize Nawat language with the efforts that are already being done. Although El Salvador has had a dark ethnic history regarding indigenous people, there are actions being taken by the government to amend mistakes from the past. The main text documenting Nawat will be briefly discussed along with the most recent writing system for Nawat to become a written language. Additionally, the efforts made in different Latin American countries to maintain and revitalize indigenous languages will be compared and discussed along with those efforts being done in El Salvador so Nawat –a language with 200 speakers- can thrive

    “Tienes Que Ser Bien Educada”: A Call for Art, Reconciliation, and Justice in Education

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    Settler colonialism and colonized methodologies have created systems and power dynamics that continue to allow the holders of power and decision makers to deem what is ethical and what is appropriate as it concerns research of others, but in particular, Indigenous peoples. The voices that are given the most visibility in research are those who conduct and produce research through the paradigm of Western education and with standards of Western research. Settler colonialism has warped the purpose and the responsibility of educators. This study created space for understanding about our collective responsibility in teaching, learning and education for the community and students. We serve as a vehicle for disrupting Western paradigms and Western research standards. This research showed that art can also be a means of research and can help us, as educators, community members and leaders, reconnect to the sacred and emotional experiences of ourselves, our communities and visions for the future. Art and Indigenous artwork specifically, has the power to transcend colonial limits of what it means to learn and to share stories. The research questions produced a space for connection and reconciliation through a community art show that centered voices and experiences of community members that are usually excluded from storytelling platforms and gallery spaces. Artwork centered culture keeper/artist perceptions of what decolonized education and knowledge is, looks like and feels like. The research in this study created space for understanding of how settler colonialism oppresses education and learning, and how it creates an illusion of the severing of emotional connection to place. This research also explored liberatory education and specifically, how we reimagine what it means to learn and how we put emotion back into learning and education. Finally, this research explored how the complex concept of reconciliation can exist in the context of knowledge, education and learning

    Unsettling Human Rights Clinical Pedagogy and Practice in Settler Colonial Contexts

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    In settler colonial contexts, law and educational institutions operate as structures of oppression, extraction, erasure, disempowerment, and continuing violence against colonized peoples. Consequently, clinical legal advocacy often can reinforce coloniality—the logic that perpetuates structural violence against individuals and groups resisting colonization and struggling for survival as peoples. Critical legal theory, including Third World Approaches to International Law (“TWAIL”), has long exposed colonial laws and practices that entrench discriminatory, racialized power structures and prevent transformative international human rights advocacy. Understanding and responding to these critiques can assist in decolonizing international human rights clinical law teaching and practice but is insufficient in safeguarding against human rights clinical pedagogy and practice that contributes to settler colonial violence. This Article proposes not only decolonizing human rights clinical advocacy but also incorporating Indigenous values in human rights clinical practice and pedagogy in settler colonial contexts. In particular, the authors offer a method of human rights law teaching and advocacy that moves beyond client-centered or community-based lawyering that acknowledges oppressive power dynamics toward a collaborative model of co-creative strategic legal advocacy. At the same time, incorporating Indigenous values in human rights clinical pedagogy and practice transforms human rights practice to counter Eurocentric epistemologies by decentering human beings themselves toward a practice that rejects anthropocentrism and strives for balance with all living things. This method—rooted in epistemic pluralism and in adopting Indigenous worldview concepts of kinship, relationship, and reciprocity—requires a relinquishment of control over the process and a shift away from the dominant worldviews of knowledge production, power, and coloniality. Incorporating Indigenous values in human rights practice means acknowledging and redressing past and present collective harms, reorienting clinical pedagogy and practice to adopt new methods based on Indigenous epistemologies of familial relationship and reciprocity with one another, and all living relatives, deep listening, authentic trustbuilding, practicing gratitude and transforming allyship to kinship. With this methodology comes a process of unlearning and relearning (through different modes of learning) and of giving and receiving in a collective, reciprocal struggle in which all are invested and equal co-collaborators toward not only stopping or preventing human rights violations, but also in building community to transform the legal, educational, and other structures at the root of settler colonial violence

    Review of participation of Indigenous peoples in plastics pollution governance

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    While calls for Indigenous participation in plastics pollution governance are increasingly common, exactly what participation means remains unclear. This review investigates how English-language peer-reviewed and gray literature describe Indigenous participation and its barriers and analyzes the dominant terms, models, enactments, and theories of Indigenous participation in plastics pollution work. We find that different actors – Indigenous people and organizations, non-Indigenous authors, mixed collaborations, and settler governments and NGOs – are talking about participation in acutely different ways. Non-Indigenous actors tend to focus on the inclusion of Indigenous people, either as data, knowledge, or a presence in existing frameworks. Mixed Indigenous and non-Indigenous author groups focus on partnership and collaboration, though with significant diversity in terms of what modes of decision-making, rights, and leadership these collaborations entail. Indigenous authors and organization advocate for participation premised on Indigenous rights, sovereignty, creation, and leadership. We end by characterizing Indigenous Environmental Justice (IEJ) in the literature. IEJ provides a notably unique way of understanding and intervening in plastics pollution. The text is designed so researchers and organizers can be more specific, deliberate, and just in the way Indigenous peoples participate in plastic pollution research, initiatives, and governance

    "A Once-in-a-Generation Opportunity":Adopting The Theatre Green Book

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    Myths, Museums, Mothers, and the Power of Letitia Carson

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    Letitia Carson was a trailblazing Black Oregon pioneer woman whose life offered remarkable and unprecedented departures from the white pioneer status quo. Letitia\u27s story presents numerous points at which she could be heralded for her successes; her pregnant journey across the Overland Trail, giving birth in the shadow of the Rocky Mountains, cultivating and maintaining two separate homesteads, challenging and conquering two lawsuits against administrator Greenberry Smith, her midwifery and community involvement, and lastly, becoming the first Black woman to own land in Oregon in 1862. And yet, her story fell to obscurity, only to be revived nearly a century after her passing. Conditioned memory was formed through centuries of white supremacy in academic, public, and museum narratives. Following this trend, Letitia\u27s story slipped into the recesses of historical consciousness and only briefly made headway in local publications and fleeting mentions in twentieth-century scholarly works. This thesis is the story of Letitia\u27s erasure and resurgence. Through historiographical analysis, exploration of historical consciousness, and the educational implications of systematically suppressed history, this work charts how a racist, exclusionary history in academic institutions led to the obscuration of Black women pioneers and how Letitia\u27s narrative came to light nearly a century after her passing. Letitia Carson\u27s story is a case study through which we can investigate larger systemic issues concerning the telling of Black history in the American West and how we can arrive at a more intersectional, decolonized vision of our nation\u27s history

    The Living Archive as Pedagogy: A Conceptual Case Study of Northern Uganda

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    The Living Archive as Pedagogy emerges from Northern Uganda’s experience of war 1986- 2008, between the Lord’s Resistance Army and the Uganda People’s Defense Force previously named the National Resistance Army. This period of war and post-war has been a difficult experience where finding solutions and mechanisms for transition or justice remain complex, restricted, delayed and consequently concealing the reality of lived marginalization from below. The Acholi of Northern Uganda went through predatory atrocities, painful humiliation and unwilled cohabitations with their oppressors during war and post-war. The study explores how the interlinking of archives and pedagogy as independent disciplines can extend possibilities for more transformative education horizons in bottom-up, post-conflict expressions. The study is immersed through a conceptual and theoretical framing in the boundaries of archiving and pedagogy, to understand how the war constructs Acholi’s lived experience in multiple complex ways. While the Acholi re-orient their lives post- war, we recognize their attention in affirming their human agency, ordering of new and different meanings, desiring a different liberation in post-conflict where responsibility in contexts of “up againstness” validates their dwelling and being in spaces that exclude them. The research acknowledges that pedagogy and archiving studies in post-conflict, needs restructuring to challenge the preserving of external and dominant epistemological purviews that order post-conflict reconstruction life. These traditions exclude the experiences of survivor-victims, are tone deaf to community-based groups articulations of post-conflict repair, and neither does lived experiences of the everyday gets organized as an outcome for knowledge. This is discussed at length, as the research responds to its central question of how living archive as pedagogy can offer a transformative education discourse. The conclusion of the study emphasizes self-representation through transformative knowledge positions of I am whom I am, Where I am, Where I Speak, and Where I think. These positions articulate a self-understanding that supports rehistrocizing of post-conflict society as a body resisting exclusion in dominant knowledge formation and institutional omissions. There is evidence of the research foregrounding the formation of person-hood from experiences of ‘up againstness” and knowledge/under-stand[ing] from below. The research facilitates a hermeneutical encounter with specific inscribed bodies of post-conflict experience, the Acholi and Wanjiku whose bodies archive a horizon of possibilities if a different and difficult reading vii of the world is done from locations of struggle to produce consciousness of re-becoming, or returning to the human. These pedagogical experience positions Acholi and Wanjiku as educators, and their lives a living archive. We the readers are invited to a learning process as willing ‘hearers’ of Acholi and Wanjiku testimony, to own responsibility as our practice to ensure they appear in the world to say their truth, as they defy conditions of their oppression.Thesis (PhD) -- Faculty of Education, School of Education Research and Engagement, 202
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