631,799 research outputs found

    The James Webb Space Telescope: Mission Overview and Status

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    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. It is a cryogenic infrared space observatory with a 25 m2 aperture (6 m class) telescope that will achieve diffraction limited angular resolution at a wavelength of 2 um. The science instrument payload includes four passively cooled near-infrared instruments providing broad- and narrow-band imagery, coronography, as well as multi-object and integral-field spectroscopy over the 0.6 < < 5.0 m spectrum. An actively cooled mid-infrared instrument provides broad-band imagery, coronography, and integral-field spectroscopy over the 5.0 < < 29 m spectrum. The JWST is being developed by NASA, in partnership with the European and Canadian Space Agencies, as a general user facility with science observations proposed by the international astronomical community in a manner similar to the Hubble Space Telescope. Technology development and mission design are complete. Construction, integration and verification testing is underway in all areas of the program. The JWST is on schedule for launch during 2021

    Separation of Church and State in the United States: Lost in Translation?

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    The (32)S/(33)S abundance as a function of galactocentric radius in the Milky Way

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    Astration of heavy elements by the stars of the Milky Way forms a fossil record which may preserve spacial distribution of the mass function for the stars in the galaxy. Sulfur is among the last common element for which the relative abundance of its various isotopes have yet to be completely measured within our galaxy. Explosive oxygen burning in massive stars is thought to be the process which dominates sulfur production within stars. There models predict that the various isotopes (S-32, S-33, S-34) are formed in relative abundance which depend strongly upon the mass of the parent star. This relative abundance is thought to be unaffected by subsequent stellar procesing since all important sinks of sulfur destroy it without regard for isotopic form. Hence the spacial variation of the mass function (MF) can be studied by measuring the abundance variation of sulfur isotopes in the galaxy provided that the product yields for these isotopes are known accurately as a function of stellar mass

    Method and apparatus for bio-regenerative life support system

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    A life support system is disclosed for human habitation (cabin) which has a bioregenerative capability through the use of a plant habitat (greenhouse) whereby oxygen-rich air from the greenhouse is processed and used in the cabin and carbon dioxide-rich air from the cabin is used in the greenhouse. Moisture from the air of both cabin and greenhouse is processed and reused in both. Wash water from the cabin is processed and reused in the cabin as hygiene water, and urine from the cabin is processed and used in the greenhouse. Spent water from the greenhouse is processed and reused in the greenhouse. Portions of the processing cycles are separated between cabin and greenhouse in order to reduce to a minimum cross contamination of the two habitat systems. Other portions of the processing cycles are common to both cabin and greenhouse. The use of bioregenerative techniques permits a substantial reduction of the total consumables used by the life support system

    Democracy and Demography

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    Greenport greenhouse as a source of inspiration

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    The Greenport greenhouse in Venlo is a benchmark in greenhouse cultivation. Tomato grower, Joep Raemakers, achieves 10 percent higher productivity and a savings of 35 percent in energy costs with this semi-closed greenhouse. The nearby Health Centre, and the Mytyl School can also rack up large energy savings by using the surplus heat from the Greenport greenhouse

    Saliency or template? ERP evidence for long-term representation of word stress

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    The present study investigated the event-related brain potential (ERP) correlates of word stress processing. Previous results showed that the violation of a legal stress pattern elicited two consecutive Mismatch Negativity (MMN) components synchronized to the changes on the first and second syllable. The aim of the present study was to test whether ERPs reflect only the detection of salient features present on the syllables, or they reflect the activation of long-term stress related representations. We examined ERPs elicited by pseudowords with no lexical representation in two conditions: the standard having a legal stress patterns, and the deviant an illegal one, and the standard having an illegal stress pattern, and the deviant a legal one. We found that the deviant having an illegal stress pattern elicited two consecutive MMN components, whereas the deviant having a legal stress pattern did not elicit MMN. Moreover, pseudowords with a legal stress pattern elicited the same ERP responses irrespective of their role in the oddball sequence, i.e., if they were standards or deviants. The results suggest that stress pattern changes are processed relying on long-term representation of word stress. To account for these results, we propose that the processing of stress cues is based on language-specific, pre-lexical stress templates

    Development of concepts for a zero-fossil-energy greenhouse

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    Dutch government and greenhouse horticultural practice aim for strongly reduced fossil energy use and of environmental loads in 2010 and energy neutral greenhouses in 2020. This research aims to design a greenhouse concept with minimal use of fossil energy and independent of nearby greenhouses. The concept is called the zero-fossil-energy-greenhouse. This paper presents a theoretical design study and analysis to assess the viability of a zero-fossil-energy-greenhouse concept. The greenhouse was designed for Dutch circumstances and relies on available state-of-art technologies. Nine concepts were generated and evaluated by a panel of experts. Although, none of the concepts was unanimously selected, one of the concepts received on-average highest votes. It uses an aquifer for long term heat and cold storage. Geothermal heat and a heat pump connected to the warm pit of the aquifer are used to heat of the greenhouse. Electricity need is covered by green-electricity. Cooling and dehumidification of the greenhouse is realised by a heat pump combined with the cold aquifer pit. This concept was more thoroughly evaluated in a simulation study that assessed design consistency and evaluated greenhouse performance in view of design requirements. From the simulations it was concluded that a combination of geothermal heat and a heat pump/aquifer can cover the heat demand of the greenhouse with help of heat buffers, but a fully closed greenhouse concept is not manageable in the summer season. With given technology the chosen concept was not able to cool and dehumidify greenhouse air to target temperature and humidity. A semi closed greenhouse solves this problem
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