30,969 research outputs found

    Revisão taxonómica do género Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) na Península Ibérica e Marrocos

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    The genus Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) includes, depending on the author, 10 to 25 species, distributed mainly in the Mediterranean basin. The taxonomy of this genus is considered to be extremely difficult, due to a great morphological variability, doubtfull relevance of some of the characters used to distinguish its species (e.g. the life form: annual or perennial; the habit: erect or diffuse, shape of the leaves, indumentum, relative size of the capitula and colour of disc or ray florets, achene morphology), but also due to the hybridization and polyploidization. Despite the numerous studies that have been published, no agreement on the classification and characters used to discriminate between taxa has been reached. A taxonomic study of the genus Calendula was conducted for the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco, aiming at (1) access the morphological variability between and within taxa, (2) confirm the chromosome numbers, (3) increase the nuclear DNA content estimations, (4) re-evaluate taxa delimitations and circumscription, and (5) reassess, and redefine, the descriptions and characters useful to distinguish taxa. In order to achieve a satisfying taxonomic core, extensive fieldwork, detailed morphometric analysis, chorological, karyological and genome size studies were conducted. For the Iberian Peninsula, four species were recognized, including nine subspecies (between these two new subspecies were described). For Morocco, including some taxa from Algeria and Tunisia 13 species were recognized (two new species and a nomenclatural change), including 15 subspecies (among these eight new subspecies were described). To corroborate the results obtained and to evaluate the evolutionary relationships among taxa, phylogenetic studies using molecular methods, such as ITS, microsatellites or other molecular markers, should be used.O gĂ©nero Calendula L. (Asteraceae - Calenduleae) inclui, dependendo do autor, 10 a 25 espĂ©cies, distribuĂ­das essencialmente na bacia do MediterrĂąneo. A taxonomia deste gĂ©nero Ă© considerada extremamente difĂ­cil, devido Ă  grande variabilidade morfolĂłgica, discutivel relevĂąncia de alguns dos caracteres utilizados para distinguir suas espĂ©cies (por exemplo, a forma de vida: anual ou perene, o hĂĄbito: erecto ou difuso, a forma das folhas, o indumento, o tamanho e a cor dos capĂ­tulos e a morfologia dos aquĂ©nios), mas tambĂ©m devido Ă  hibridização e poliploidização. Apesar dos inĂșmeros estudos que foram publicados, nĂŁo foi alcançado um acordo sobre a classificação e os caracteres utilizados para discriminar as suas espĂ©cies. Um estudo taxonĂłmico do gĂ©nero Calendula foi realizado para a PenĂ­nsula IbĂ©rica e Marrocos, com o objectivo de (1) verificar a variabilidade morfolĂłgica, (2) confirmar o nĂșmero de cromossomas, (3) aumentar as estimativas de conteĂșdo em ADN, (4) reavaliar a delimitação e a circunscrição dos taxa, e (5) reavaliar e redefinir as descriçÔes e caracteres Ășteis para os distinguir. Para alcançar uma robustĂȘs taxonĂłmica satisfatĂłria, foram realizados extensos trabalhos de campo, anĂĄlise morfomĂ©trica detalhada, abordagens corolĂłgicas, cariolĂłgicas e quanto ao conteĂșdo em ADN. Para a PenĂ­nsula IbĂ©rica, quatro espĂ©cies foram reconhecidas, incluindo nove subespĂ©cies (entre essas duas novas subespĂ©cies foram descritas). Para Marrocos, incluindo alguns taxa da Argelia e Tunisia, foram reconhecidas 13 espĂ©cies (duas novas e uma mudança nomenclatural), incluindo 15 subespĂ©cies (entre essas oito novas subespĂ©cies foram descritas). Para corroborar os resultados obtidos e avaliar as relaçÔes evolutivas e filogenĂ©ticas entre os taxa, estudos que utilizem diferentes mĂ©todos moleculares, tais como ITS, microsatĂ©lites ou outros marcadores moleculares, devem ser utilizados.Apoio financeiro do LaboratĂłrio Associado CESAM - Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (AMB/50017) financiado por fundos nacionais atravĂ©s da FCT/MCTES e cofinanciado pelo FEDER (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007638), no Ăąmbito do Acordo de Parceria PT2020, e Compete 2020Programa Doutoral em Biologi

    Surrogacy in Indonesia: The comparative legality and Islamic perspective

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    Reproductive health technology allows married couples who experience infertility to have a child through assisted reproductive technology (ART), such as the in vitro fertilisation (IVF) process. The transfer of the extracted embryo to the woman’s womb is called surrogacy technology (gestational surrogacy). The legality of the practice of surrogacy is still questionable, both on a national and international level. This research discussed the legality of surrogacy in some religious countries, focusing on Indonesia. This research used normative juridical research methods or literature review through a comparative religion-legal approach. This study indicated that most do not have a specific legal instrument regarding surrogacy practice. International law also does not have a standard legal instrument regarding the legality of surrogacy. Legality is determined by each religious country’s national laws and customs. For example, Indonesian law prohibits this practice implicitly under Law No. 36 of 2009 concerning health. The United Kingdom legalised surrogacy through the Surrogacy Agreement Act 1985, which was amended to the Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 2008, Greece through the Greek Legislation Law 3089/2002 and Law 3305/2005, and India through the 2019 Surrogacy Regulation Bill. Those countries have their limitations and characteristics that rule surrogacy. Surrogacy is indeed a technological advancement in the health sector. However, for countries that are influenced much by religion, technological advances sometimes conflict with the culture and the belief that has long been followed by most of the population. For Indonesia, the largest of Sunni Islam ruled surrogacy against the law. Next, Iran, as a Shia Islam country, ruled that surrogacy is a legal action. Contribution: The research provided information and knowledge regarding the different settings of surrogacy practice. Most religious countries bravely rejected or put strict limits on the practice of surrogacy

    Psychological Resilience in Children and Adolescents: The Power of Self-Recovery

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    Many children in the world grow up without good enough opportunities under challenging conditions such as poverty, violence, neglect, abuse, family discord and diseases. These conditions hinder the mental, emotional and social development of children and young people, making it difficult for them to reach their potential to become healthy adults. In addition to all these, there are children who can survive even in the most severe conditions and continue their development with health and functionality. Psychological resilience is a resource that protects and develops the psychological well-being of children and adolescents, rather than an invariable, innate feature, it is a dynamic process that can be developed, continuous and shaped by the interaction of the individual with his own internal factors and environmental factors. The aim of this study is to present a review of the literature on resilience research from past to present. The article includes the definition of resilience, the history of resilience research, components of resilience, models, measurement, interventions, and future directions in resilience research. Investments in the development of resilience in children and adolescents will produce health-promoting outcomes that balance individual and community-based psychological well-being throughout life, including positive outcomes and potential improvements

    OLIG2 neural progenitor cell development and fate in Down syndrome

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    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and is the most common genetic form of intellectual disability. It is unknown precisely how triplication of HSA21 results in the intellectual disability, but it is thought that the global transcriptional dysregulation caused by trisomy 21 perturbs multiple aspects of neurodevelopment that cumulatively contribute to its etiology. While the characteristics associated with DS can arise from any of the genes triplicated on HSA21, in this work we focus on oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 (OLIG2). The progeny of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) expressing OLIG2 are likely to be involved in many of the cellular changes underlying the intellectual disability in DS. To explore the fate of OLIG2+ neural progenitors, we took advantage of two distinct models of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from individuals with DS. Our results from these two systems identified multiple perturbations in development in the cellular progeny of OLIG2+ NPCs. In Ts65Dn, we identified alterations in neurons and glia derived from the OLIG2 expressing progenitor domain in the ventral spinal cord. There were significant differences in the number of motor neurons and interneurons present in the trisomic lumbar spinal cord depending on age of the animal pointing both to a neurodevelopment and a neurodegeneration phenotype in the Ts65Dn mice. Of particular note, we identified changes in oligodendrocyte (OL) maturation in the trisomic mice that are dependent on spatial location and developmental origin. In the dorsal corticospinal tract, there were significantly fewer mature OLs in the trisomic mice, and in the lateral funiculus we observed the opposite phenotype with more mature OLs being present in the trisomic animals. We then transitioned our studies into iPSCs where we were able to pattern OLIG2+ NPCs to either a spinal cord-like or a brain-like identity and study the OL lineage that differentiated from each progenitor pool. Similar to the region-specific dysregulation found in the Ts65Dn spinal cord, we identified perturbations in trisomic OLs that were dependent on whether the NPCs had been patterned to a brain-like or spinal cord-like fate. In the spinal cord-like NPCs, there was no difference in the proportion of cells expressing either OLIG2 or NKX2.2, the two transcription factors whose co-expression is essential for OL differentiation. Conversely, in the brain-like NPCs, there was a significant increase in OLIG2+ cells in the trisomic culture and a decrease in NKX2.2 mRNA expression. We identified a sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling based mechanism underlying these changes in OLIG2 and NKX2.2 expression in the brain-like NPCs and normalized the proportion of trisomic cells expressing the transcription factors to euploid levels by modulating the activity of the SHH pathway. Finally, we continued the differentiation of the brain-like and spinal cord-like NPCs to committed OL precursor cells (OPCs) and allowed them to mature. We identified an increase in OPC production in the spinal cord-like trisomic culture which was not present in the brain-like OPCs. Conversely, we identified a maturation deficit in the brain-like trisomic OLs that was not present in the spinal cord-like OPCs. These results underscore the importance of regional patterning in characterizing changes in cell differentiation and fate in DS. Together, the findings presented in this work contribute to the understanding of the cellular and molecular etiology of the intellectual disability in DS and in particular the contribution of cells differentiated from OLIG2+ progenitors

    Transcriptional networks of transient cell states during human prefrontal cortex development

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    The human brain is divided into various anatomical regions that control and coordinate unique functions. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a large brain region that comprises a range of neuronal and non-neuronal cell types, sharing extensive interconnections with subcortical areas, and plays a critical role in cognition and memory. A timely appearance of distinct cell types through embryonic development is crucial for an anatomically perfect and functional brain. Direct tracing of cell fate development in the human brain is not possible, but single-cell transcriptome sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets provide the opportunity to dissect cellular heterogeneity and its molecular regulators. Here, using scRNA-seq data of human PFC from fetal stages, we elucidate distinct transient cell states during PFC development and their underlying gene regulatory circuitry. We further identified that distinct intermediate cell states consist of specific gene regulatory modules essential to reach terminal fate using discrete developmental paths. Moreover, using in silico gene knock-out and over-expression analysis, we validated crucial gene regulatory components during the lineage specification of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Our study illustrates unique intermediate states and specific gene interaction networks that warrant further investigation for their functional contribution to typical brain development and discusses how this knowledge can be harvested for therapeutic intervention in challenging neurodevelopmental disorders

    The Genetics of Pain: An exploration of gene-by-environment interactions and their effects on pain

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    The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least one adverse childhood experience (ACE) reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers with at least one ACE. For pain interference, minor allele carriers (G/G) of CNR2 rs2501431 scored significantly higher than major allele carriers (A/A and G/A). Chapter 3 presents a cluster analysis that combines genotypes of FKBP5 rs9394314 and CNR2 rs2501431 to explore meaningful relationships with pain and trauma-related distress. ACE was also explored as a moderator of these relationships. Three clusters were identified where the second cluster characterized by major allele carriers of rs9394314 and minor allele carriers of rs2501431 reported significantly higher pain-related functional interference scores. Participants in the second cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain interference and traumatic distress scores compared to the third cluster, while participants in the first cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain severity compared to the first cluster. Chapter 4 presents genomic structural equation models (SEM) that explore the relationships of genotypes with trauma-related distress using the traumatic injuries distress scale (TIDS), ACE, and recovery outcomes. The results demonstrate a relationship between TIDS and recovery outcomes, and an indirect relationship between FKBP5 rs9394314 and recovery outcomes exist which is mediated by TIDS. Major allele carriers of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported higher TIDS scores, which was also demonstrated for participants that had at least one ACE. Major allele carriers that scored higher on the TIDS were predicted to be in the none-recovered category. These results support the notion that gene-x-environment interactions may play an important role in pain and recovery

    Munson Hall

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    Zur kariesprotektiven Wirkung einer Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas im Vergleich zu Zahnpasten mit unterschiedlichen Fluoridverbindungen

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    Problemstellung: Karies als eine lokalisierte, multifaktoriell bedingte Erkrankung beginnt mit einer kariösen InitiallĂ€sion. Um einer Progression dieser InitiallĂ€sion entgegenzuwirken, gibt es unter anderem verschiedene Zahnpasten auf dem Markt mit kariesprotektiver Wirkung. Eine 2016 auf dem Markt erschienene Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas und Natriumfluorid verspricht durch das bioaktive Glas an der ZahnoberflĂ€che zu binden und Calcium, Phosphat und Fluoridionen ĂŒber einen lĂ€ngeren Zeitraum freizusetzen. Dies soll zu einem verbesserten Remineralisationseffekt fĂŒhren. Ziel: In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde das Remineralisationsverhalten der Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas und Natriumfluorid im Vergleich zu Zahnpasten mit den unterschiedlichen Fluoridverbindungen Natriumfluorid und Zinnfluorid in-vitro untersucht. Es sollte ermittelt werden, ob Unterschiede im remineralisierenden Effekt der Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas und Natriumfluorid und der Vergleichszahnpasten bestehen. Dabei bezog sich eine Hypothese auf den Vergleich des remineralisierenden Effektes der Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas und Natriumfluorid und der Zahnpaste mit Natriumfluorid anhand des Fluoreszenzverlustes (∆F) und des Volumens der LĂ€sion (∆Q). Die andere Hypothese bezog sich auf den Vergleich des remineralisierenden Effektes der Zahnpaste mit bioaktivem Glas und Natriumfluorid und der Zahnpaste mit Zinnfluorid anhand des Fluoreszenzverlustes (∆F) und des Volumens der LĂ€sion (∆Q). Material und Methoden: FĂŒr die Studie wurden 45 Zahnproben von extrahierten humanen ZĂ€hnen verwendet. An allen Proben (n = 45) wurde eine zu beurteilende FlĂ€che poliert, je 15 Proben wurden randomisiert drei Gruppen (Testgruppe, Kontrollgruppe I, Kontrollgruppe II) zugeteilt und mittels eines Methylcellulose-MilchsĂ€ure-Systems (pH = 4,6) fĂŒr 14 Tage artifiziell demineralisiert. FĂŒr jede Gruppe wurde eine Zahnpaste mit unterschiedlicher Fluoridverbindung ausgewĂ€hlt: Testgruppe = BioMinTM F (bioaktives Glas und 530 ppm Natriumfluorid), Kontrollgruppe I = Signal Kariesschutz (1450 ppm Natriumfluorid) und Kontrollgruppe II = Sensodyne Repair*&Protect (1100 ppm Zinnfluorid). Über einen Zeitraum von 90 Tagen wurden die Proben in einer Remineralisationslösung bei 37 °C im Brutschrank gelagert. Dabei wurden alle Proben im Sinne eines pH-Cycling-Modells behandelt, um die Phasen der Demineralisation und Remineralisation zu simulieren. DafĂŒr wurden sie zweimal tĂ€glich zwei Minuten in 0,1 M MilchsĂ€ure (pH = 4,6) eingelegt, mit destilliertem Wasser abgespĂŒlt und anschließend fĂŒr zwei Minuten in eine Zahnpastensuspension der jeweiligen Zahnpaste eingelegt. Mittels quantitativer lichtinduzierter Fluoreszenz (QLFTM) wurden Messungen vor und nach der Demineralisation und nach 7, 30, 60 und 90 Tagen durchgefĂŒhrt. Beurteilt wurde das Mineralisationsverhalten anhand der KenngrĂ¶ĂŸen des Fluoreszenzverlustes (∆F in %) und des Volumens der LĂ€sion (∆Q in % x px2). Die anschließende statistische Auswertung erfolgte mit der Software MedCalc, Version 19.3.1. Die Messergebnisse wurden mittels des Shapiro-Wilk-Tests auf Normalverteilung untersucht (p < 0,001). FĂŒr die Untersuchung der unabhĂ€ngigen Daten wurde der Kruskal-Wallis-Test, fĂŒr die abhĂ€ngigen Daten der Friedman-Test und weiterfĂŒhrend die Post-hoc-Analyse nach Conover durchgefĂŒhrt. Das Signifikanzniveau wurde auf α = 0,05 festgelegt. Ergebnisse: Nach 7 Tagen konnten sowohl fĂŒr den Fluoreszenzverlust ∆F in % (p = 0,019) als auch fĂŒr das Volumen der LĂ€sion ∆Q in % x px2 (p = 0,011) signifikante Unterschiede festgestellt werden. FĂŒr beide Parameter wies die Testgruppe (bioaktives Glas und Natriumfluorid) nach 7 Tagen eine geringere remineralisierende Wirksamkeit im Vergleich zu beiden Kontrollgruppen auf. Nach 90 Tagen wurde fĂŒr ∆F ein signifikanter Unterschied im remineralisierenden Effekt festgestellt (p = 0,041). Demnach wies die Testgruppe (bioaktives Glas und Natriumfluorid) einen grĂ¶ĂŸeren Fluoreszenzverlust und damit einen geringeren remineralisierenden Effekt auf als die Kontrollgruppe II (Zinnfluorid). Diskussion und Schlussfolgerung: Die Ergebnisse dieser in-vitro-Studie zeigen, dass zum Zeitpunkt nach 7 Tagen die Testzahnpaste und beide Vergleichszahnpasten, sowie ĂŒber einen Zeitraum von 90 Tagen die Testzahnpaste und die Vergleichszahnpaste mit Zinnfluorid nicht ĂŒber eine gleiche remineralisierende Wirksamkeit verfĂŒgen. Die Vergleichszahnpaste mit Zinnfluorid zeigte bezĂŒglich des Parameters ∆F die höchste remineralisierende Wirkung. Weitere Studien sind nötig, um die in dieser Studie erzielten Ergebnisse in-vivo zu ĂŒberprĂŒfen

    The Professional Identity of Doctors who Provide Abortions: A Sociological Investigation

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    Abortion is a medicalised problem in England and Wales, where the law places doctors at the centre of legal provision and puts doctors in control of who has an abortion. However, the sex-selection abortion scandal of 2012 presented a very real threat to 'abortion doctors', when the medical profession's values and practices were questioned in the media, society and by Members of Parliament. Doctors found themselves at the centre of a series of claims that stated doctors were acting both illegally and unethically, driven by profit rather than patient needs. Yet, the perspectives of those doctors who provide abortions has been under-researched; this thesis aims to fill that gap by examining the beliefs and values of this group of doctors. Early chapters highlight the ambiguous position of the abortion provider in Britain, where doctors are seen as a collective group of professionals motivated by medical dominance and medical autonomy. They outline how this position is then questioned and contested, with doctors being presented as unethical. By studying abortion at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels, this thesis seeks to better understand the values of the 'abortion doctor', and how these levels shape the work and experiences of abortion providers in England and Wales. This thesis thus addresses the question: 'What do abortion doctors' accounts of their professional work suggest about the contemporary dynamics of the medicalisation of abortion in Britain?'. It investigates the research question using a qualitative methodological approach: face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 47 doctors who provide abortions in England and Wales. The findings from this empirical study show how doctors' values are linked to how they view the 'normalisation of abortion'. At the macro-level doctors, openly resisted the medicalisation of abortion through the position ascribed to them by the legal framework, yet at the meso-level doctors construct an identity where normalising abortion is based on further medicalising services. Finally, at the micro-level, the ambiguous position of the abortion provider is further identified in terms of being both a proud provider and a stigmatised individual. This thesis shows that while the existing medicalisation literature has some utility, it has limited explanatory power when investigating the problem of abortion. The thesis thus provides some innovative insights into the relevance and value of medicalisation through a comprehensive study on doctors' values, beliefs and practices