184,511 research outputs found

    Living with Nkrumahism: Nation, state, and pan-Africanism in Ghana

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    This dissertation explores the construction of the pan-Africanist and socialist discourse of Kwame Nkrumah’s government—Ghana’s first independent government—during the nation-building project of the 1950s and 1960s. In 1957, when Ghana became independent, the country’s transition to self-rule emerged as a watershed moment in African and world history as this small West African country challenged an international community rooted in the political and institutional framework of the territorial nation-state with a radical program of pan-African liberation and global socialist development. By 1958, the Nkrumah government’s commitment to this radical program had resulted in supra-territorial federations with Guinea-Conakry and later Mali, while, at home, Nkrumah and his Convention People’s Party (CPP) presented the nascent nation as a model for a new form of modern, disciplined, and continental citizenship. Based on eighteen months of oral and archival research in Ghana, this dissertation reconstructs the development and performance of Nkrumah’s program of pan-African liberation and socialist development in the Ghanaian public sphere. In doing so, it interrogates the role of pan-Africanism and global socialism in shaping a vision of a growing modern, disciplined, and socialist citizenry within the Nkrumahist state. Moreover, through an examination of the press, youth, women’s, and workers’ organizations, this dissertation traces how key groups of both “elite” and “ordinary” Ghanaians embedded aspects of Nkrumahist ideology into existing idioms of power, corruption, and progress in their communities as they sought to negotiate the increasingly volatile realities associated with life in postcolonial Africa. As a result, I argue that, through the institutional framework of Nkrumah-era pan-Africanist and socialist politics, an interactive debate developed within Nkrumah’s Ghana whereby an eclectic array of Ghanaian men and women came together to debate and contest their changing places, roles, and responsibilities in the postcolonial nation. Such an analysis, I contend, provides a framework for understanding decolonization and nation-building in Africa not as the elite program of political re-organization that most scholars have portrayed it as, but as part of a dynamic set of local and transnational imaginings and contestations aimed at addressing the challenges and inequities associated with Africa’s transition to self-rule.U of I Only2 year U of I Access extension requested by author and approved by Emily Wuchner. Embargo applied by [email protected] 2019-05-16

    Desarrollo de papeles biocativos por injerto de moléculas específicas en celulosa

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    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2019En la presente tesis se presenta el desarrollo de papeles bioactivos con potencial aplicación en el envasado activo de alimentos. Para tal fin, se propuso el injerto de eugenol, un compuesto de origen natural con propiedades antimicrobiana, antioxidante y repelente de insectos, en celulosa, utilizando ácido policarboxílico como agente ligante. Con el objetivo de evaluar la escalabilidad del proceso propuesto, se estudiaron distintas tecnologías de curado, tales como calentamiento por convección, infrarrojo, microondas y conducción. En todos los casos, se analizaron la influencia de las variables operativas sobre el avance de la reacción y propiedades finales del papel preparado, utilizando un diseño de experimentos Doehlert para elegir las experiencias a realizar, y analizando los resultados mediante metodología de superficie de respuesta y análisis estadístico ANOVA. Se pudo comprobar que la reacción de injerto de eugenol en papel comercial se produjo con éxito en todas las tecnologías estudiadas. Asimismo, se encontraron las condiciones óptimas de reacción para cada una de las tecnologías, para lo cual se buscó un compromiso entre el avance de la reacción y las propiedades finales del material (mecánicas y color). A partir de estas condiciones, se prepararon papeles y se realizó una caracterización más específica para su aplicación como envase de alimentos comparando los papeles modificados con el papel virgen. Se analizaron las propiedades mecánicas por ensayo de tracción, rasgado y punzonado y se midió la absorción de agua y la capacidad de degradación. Por otro lado, las propiedades bioactivas analizadas fueron la actividad antioxidante, antimicrobiana, repelente e insecticida de gorgojos (T. castaneum y R. dominica). Una vez probado que el papel modificado presenta buenas características físicas y bioactivas para su posible aplicación en el envasado de alimentos, se realizaron prototipos de envasado para harina, como alimento representativo de alimentos derivados de cereales, susceptibles al ataque de plagas. En este estudio se analizó la migración de reactivos, propiedades organolépticas y conservación del alimento, arrojando resultados promisorios para la industria de envases de alimentos. Finalmente, se realizó una comparación de las tecnologías de curado ensayadas, analizando diferentes aspectos como avance de reacción, propiedades finales, apariencia, tiempo de reacción, consumo de energía, entre otros, como así también disponibilidad y uso de estas tecnologías a escala industrial, seleccionando la tecnología de conducción como la más adecuada para una propuesta de escalado industrial.Fil: Muratore, Florencia. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales; Argentina.Fil: Muratore, Florencia. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de Procesos y Química Aplicada; Argentina

    Does international patent collaboration have an effect on entrepreneurship?

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    .Entrepreneurship is one of the main pillars of growth in any economy. Achieving a high rate of entrepreneurship in a region has become the priority objective of governments and firms. However, in many cases, new firm creation is conditioned by relations or collaboration in innovation with agents from other countries. Previous literature has analyzed the mechanisms that foster entrepreneurship. This paper attempts to shed light on the influence of international patent collaboration (IPC) on entrepreneurial activity at country level taking into account the timing of this relationship. An empirical study is proposed to verify whether IPC leads to greater entrepreneurship and to analyze the gestation period between international patenting actions and firm creation. Using the Generalized Method of Moments, the two hypotheses proposed were tested in a data panel of 30 countries for the period 2005–2017. Results show the influence of IPC in promoting entrepreneurship in the same year, but especially in the following year. The study offers implications for entrepreneurs and public agents. IPC affects the integration and interaction of international agents in a country, favors the production of new knowledge, and increases positive externalities in a territory. All this facilitates the creation of new companies with a high innovative component.S

    El problema de la oligarquía en la Política de Aristóteles

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    p. 69-95La oligarquía es una de las seis formas de Estado y de gobierno que estudió Aristóteles en su Política. La realidad social, política e histórica mostró que era la forma de organización política más frecuente. Aristóteles distinguió varios tipos de oligarquías, estudió cómo llegan a instaurarse, las causas de su degeneración y final extinción. Las ideas de Aristóteles tuvieron una amplia influencia entre los comentaristas de los siglos XIII a XVII, que optaron por considerar el régimen oligárquico como una forma de Estado dominada por pocos o por ricos.S

    Del modelo del Plan Badajoz a la Declaración de Gredos. Dos modelos de desarrollo rural = From the Badajoz Plan model to the Gredos Declaration. Two models of rural development

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    El problema de la despoblación derivado de la falta de oportunidades económicas ha sido una constante en la España rural desde mediados del siglo XX. En este sentido, el plan Badajoz (1952) fue considerado como el primer ensayo español de planificación regional a través de la transformación de campos de secano a regadío y su posterior colonización con la creación de pueblos que permitieran un desarrollo económico de la zona. Transcurridos 67 años de la realización del plan, la despoblación en Extremadura ha seguido persistiendo e incluso se ha agravado en la última década pese al incremento poblacional en España. Entre las diferentes alternativas existentes, la declaración de Gredos (2019) pretende nuevamente la involucración de las diferentes administraciones públicas, tanto nacionales como supranacionales, al objeto de promover unas condiciones favorables que permitan el progreso social y económico de las diferentes regiones españolas, evitando no solamente la despoblación de las zonas rurales, sino también una distribución de la renta regional y personal más equitativa que la actualmente existente entre el campo y la ciudad. Si bien en la actualidad, la estructura socioeconómica del país es sustancialmente distinta a la que originó el plan Badajoz y por tanto las estrategias a seguir son radicalmente opuestas, los objetivos perseguidos siguen siendo los mismos, así como la necesidad de coordinar unas políticas públicas encaminadas al logro de dicho fin. El objetivo de esta investigación será comparar ambos planes, analizando los errores cometidos en el plan Badajoz y su posible traslación a las nuevas estrategias de desarrollo desde una perspectiva de la planificación estratégica

    当前中国大学教学中的儒家思想 = The Confucius’ Traces in Current Chinese University Teaching = Las huellas confucianas en la enseñanza universitaria china actual

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    《论语》的深入研究让我们了解了孔子的社会思想是如何形成的。师父一直主张 通过社会中的个人教育来实现社会改革。他希望通过培养理想的生活方式和充分发展个人的 个性来发展理想的社会秩序。通过多年的经验和对教学和学习中国教师和学生行为的深入分 析,已经证明儒家教学的主要原则仍然存在于教师,班级监督员和学生等关键人物中; 以及决 定教学的几个因素,如动机,教师的谴责,学生的羞怯和对概念的记忆。此外,将欧洲教师 与中国教师进行比较尤为重要,因为前者主要受希腊罗马哲学和启蒙思想家的影响; 后者受到 孔子思想的极大影响,尽管他们出生于2500多年前。 The study in-depth of The Analects gives us an idea of how the Confucius’ ideas for society were. The Master always advocated bringing social reforms through the education of individuals in society. He wanted to develop an ideal social order through the cultivation of ideal lifestyles and the full development of the personality of the individuals. Through years of experience and the thorough analysis of the behaviour of Chinese teachers and students when teaching and learning it has been shown that the main principles of Confucian teachings are still present in crucial figures such as the teacher, the class monitor and the students; as well as in several factors that determine the teaching such as motivation, the teacher's reprimand, the students’ shyness and the memorization of concepts. Furthermore, it is particularly important to compare the European teacher with the Chinese one, since the former is mainly influenced by the Greco-Roman philosophy and the thinkers of the Enlightenment; the latter is tremendously influenced by the ideas of Confucius despite the fact that they were born more than 2,500 years ag

    Análisis de la calidad del servicio que prestan las entidades bancarias y su repercusión en la satisfacción del cliente y la lealtad hacia la entidad

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    p. 79-107El objetivo de la investigación se ha encuadrado en determinar las percepciones de calidad que tienen los clientes sobre su entidad bancaria. Para ello, para contrastar el modelo se han utilizado ecuaciones estructurales por medio de mínimos cuadrados parciales conocido como PLS (Partial Least Square). El objetivo concreto ha sido analizar los factores que determinan la calidad del servicio que perciben los clientes de las entidades bancarias, entre los que se encuentran: i) aspecto operativo, ii) aspecto físico, iii) nuevas tecnologías, y iv) aspecto humano. Una vez determinada la fiabilidad y validez de la escala, se procedió a verificar las tres hipótesis de la investigación. La primera hipótesis del modelo examina cada una de las relaciones de estos factores con la calidad del servicio, del que se resalta la gran influencia de los aspectos operativos en la percepción de la calidad. La segunda hipótesis demuestra que la calidad del servicio es un antecedente de la satisfacción del cliente. Y una tercera hipótesis verifica que la satisfacción del cliente tiene influencia en la lealtad del cliente hacia la entidad.S

    Application of lactic acid bacteria for the biopreservation of meat products: A systematic review

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    .The increasing concern of consumers about food quality and safety and their rejection of chemical additives has promoted the breakthrough of the biopreservation field and the development of studies on the use of beneficial bacteria and their metabolites as potential natural antimicrobials for shelf life extension and enhanced food safety. Control of foodborne pathogens in meat and meat products represents a serious challenge for the food industry which can be addressed through the intelligent use of bio-compounds or biopreservatives. This article aims to systematically review the available knowledge about biological strategies based on the use of lactic acid bacteria to control the proliferation of undesirable microorganisms in different meat products. The outcome of the literature search evidenced the potential of several strains of lactic acid bacteria and their purified or semi-purified antimicrobial metabolites as biopreservatives in meat products for achieving longer shelf life or inhibiting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, especially when combined with other technologies to achieve a synergistic effect.S

    The Art of Crafting Useful Citizens: Disability, Charity and the State (1870-1970)

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    During the period 1870 to 1970 popular conceptions of disabled children and adults changed significantly, and the practices and policies established to understand, reform and manage the disruptive disabled body evolved accordingly. Beginning in 1870, when the introduction of compulsory schooling provided the impetus for the development of charitable schools for 'crippled' children, this thesis examines key pieces of educational and employment legislation directed towards disabled adults and children, as well as a number of charitable interventions, over a period of a hundred years. It analyses the shifting relationship between disabled people, charity and the state, and the role played by arts and crafts in different educational, therapeutic and occupational contexts, to consider how these worked to extend, or deny, the rights of citizenship to disabled people throughout this period. It analyses practices associated with arts and crafts, as well as a number of case studies which include: Chailey Heritage Craft School for Crippled Children, The National Spastics Society and the Mouth and Foot Painting Artists Association. It uses these to chart the variable charitable, educational, political frameworks which have redefined, or reaffirmed, the expectations established for disabled children and adults, particularly in areas concerned with their education and employment. The study focuses principally upon disabled children to argue that the early institutions established on their behalf situated the 'crippled' child within the productive realm of adulthood through a work-based approach to education which affirmed their responsibility to be active, productive citizens. It demonstrates how this gradually changed through increased state intervention which progressively worked to redefine the boundaries of disabled children's childhoods and establish their dependency upon the state. Key to these developments were the evolving attitudes and values assigned to disabled people, education and work. Whilst the adult cripple of the nineteenth century was understood to be work-shy, weak and physically unproductive, the working contributions of disabled citizens during the Second World War were acknowledged via the passage of The Disabled Persons (Employment) Act (1944) which affirmed their status as workers. Concurrently, educational policy gradually included more significantly impaired children, which meant educational practice, including arts and crafts, necessarily evolved to consider more holistically the individual needs and development of the disabled child. This thesis argues that this established a broader distinction between the disabled adult and the disabled child, and that this is evident in the educational and occupational expectations established for both following the Second World War. Ultimately this thesis demonstrates how and why 'The Art of Crafting Useful Citizens' came to be an enterprise taken up both by charities and the state at different times, and in different ways. It argues that these approaches reflected the cultural anxieties and values of the time, and thus changed in meaning, form and intended recipient. The frameworks, practices and policies established by charities and the state successively worked to reexamine, recategorise and reform the disabled body, which this thesis argues worked to affirm the dependency of the disabled child, whilst simultaneously reasserting the expectations and rights of disabled adults to engage more completely in their own embodied citizenship through work

    Identification of Hindbrain Neural Substrates for Motor Initiation in the hatchling Xenopus laevis Tadpole

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    Animal survival profoundly depends on the ability to detect stimuli in the environment, process them and respond accordingly. In this respect, motor responses to a sensory stimulation evolved into a variety of coordinated movements, which involve the control of brain centres over spinal locomotor circuits. The hatchling Xenopus tadpole, even in its embryonic stage, is able to detect external sensory information and to swim away if the stimulus is considered noxious. To do so, the tadpole relies on well-known ascending sensory pathway, which carries the sensory information to the brain. When the stimulus is strong enough, descending interneurons are activated, leading to the excitation of spinal CPG neurons, which causes the undulatory movement of swimming. However, the activation of descending interneurons that marks the initiation of motor response appears after a long delay from the sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the long-latency response is variable in time, as observed in the slow-summating excitation measured in descending interneurons. These two features, i.e. long-latency and variability, cannot be explained by the firing time and pattern of the ascending sensory pathway of the Xenopus tadpole. Therefore, a novel neuronal population has been proposed to lie in the hindbrain of the tadpole, and being able to 'hold' the sensory information, thus accounting for the long and variable delay of swim initiation. In this work, the role of the hindbrain in the maintenance of the long and variable response to trunk skin stimulation is investigated in the Xenopustadpole at developmental stage 37/38. A multifaceted approach has been used to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying the delayed motor response, including behavioural experiments, electrophysiology analysis of fictive swimming, hindbrain extracellular recordings and imaging experiments. Two novel neuronal populations have been identified in the tadpole's hindbrain, which exhibit activation patterns compatible with the role of delaying the excitation of the spinal locomotor circuit. Future work on cellular properties and synaptic connections of these newly discovered populations might shed light on the mechanism of descending control active at embryonic stage. Identifying supraspinal neuronal populations in an embryonic organism could aid in understanding mechanisms of descending motor control in more complex vertebrates
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