28,625 research outputs found

    Study of behavioral, productive and health responses in dairy cows exposed to different dietary conditions

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    L'unifeed a secco √® il pi√Ļ diffuso nell'areale del Parmigiano Reggiano. In questa situazione, la peNDF deve essere ridotta per evitare selezione. Di conseguenza spesso presenta valori sotto la soglia minima. In pi√Ļ, spesso i fieni utilizzati sono di scarso valore nutritivo e si rendono necessari elevati livelli di concentrati nella razione. Tutto questo pu√≤ portare alla diminuzione del tempo di ruminazione e produzione di saliva, aumentando il rischio di SARA. Dopo queste brevi premesse, due prove sono state effettuate presso la stalla sperimentale dell'universit√† di Bologna. La prima con lo scopo di studiare il comportamento alimentare di vacche in lattazione sottoposte a regimi ad libitum/razionato con assenza/presenza di fieno lungo. La seconda si svolse con un improvviso cambio di stabulazione, dalla libera alla fissa, e quota di concentrati nell'unifeed. Da queste prove un grande mole di dati √® stata registrata, grazie ai collari della ruminazione, boli reticolari e mangiatoie automatiche. I risultati ottenuti ci hanno permesso di confermare le interconnessioni tra comportamento alimentare, ruminazione e pH. Abbiamo anche verificato l'importanza di costanza di preparazione dell'unifeed e la grande capacit√† di adattamento delle bovine. Infatti la variabilit√† nelle gestione della mandria pu√≤ provocare importanti sanitari. Quindi suggeriamo la supplementazione di fieno lungo in mangiatoia e lo sviluppo di tecnologia NIR in linea sul carro miscelatore. Infine sono state registrate importanti differenze individuali nel far fronte agli stati di stress alimentare. Uno studio pi√Ļ approfondito di questi aspetti sicuramente avrebbe risvolti positivi nella gestione della mandria e aprile la possibilit√† all'introduzione di nuovi indici di selezione.TMR based on dry hay is the most common ration type on Parmigiano Reggiano area. In this situation, dietary particle size must be reduced in order to avoid sorting. Thus, peNDF values frequently are below the safety threshold. Moreover, hays commonly used are characterized by low quality and nutritional values, this fact leads to an increase in concentrates on the ration. All these evidences could lead to a decrease in rumination time and saliva production increases the risk of SARA. After these brief considerations, at the University of Bologna dairy experimental unit two trials were carried out. The first one had the aim to study eating behavior in dairy cows exposed to ad libitum or restricted TMR and presence/absence of long hay. The second one studied the abrupt change in housing, from free stall to tie stall, and TMR composition, with concentrate increasing. From these trials a huge flow of information was recorded, thanks to technologies devices such as rumination collars, reticular pH boluses and individual feed bunks. Obtained results permitted us to attest to the connections between eating behaviors and rumination time and pH. We verified how is important to keep constant of TMR preparation and the extreme capability of cow adaptation. In fact, the variability due to management errors could provoke important problems on the herd. Then, we suggest providing long hay in order to mitigate possible negatives effects and to develop on-line NIR systems to evaluate TMR production and consistency. Finally, we recorded important individual differences between cows, differences that could be magnified during stressing conditions and leading us to detect risky subjects. A deeper study of these characteristics could have an important practical reflect on daily herd management and open the possibility to include new selection indexes

    Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characterization of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitis samples in Nghe An province, Vietnam

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    Background and Aim: Vietnam’s dairy sector is in its early phase of large-scale farming development. Therefore, mastitis in cows is always a concern to farm owners. This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, resistance, and virulence-related genes of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine mastitis in Nghe An province of Vietnam. Materials and Methods: Fifty E. coli strains were isolated from the clinical cases and subjected to this study. All isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by the disk-diffusion method, as described by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Antimicrobial and virulence genes were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. Results: All isolates were resistant to lincomycin and sulfamethoxazole and sensitive to gentamicin, while other antimicrobials showed resistance from 2% to 90%. Multidrug resistance was confirmed in 46% of isolates, and none of them were identified as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers. From fifty strains tested for antimicrobial and virulence genes, six isolates harbored tetA, 6 tetB, 13 sul1, 15 sul2, 2 Intimin (eae), 1 iutA, and 3 stx2. Conclusion: Antimicrobial and multidrug resistances are the main virulence factors of E. coli isolated from bovine mastitis in Vietnam. The virulence genes encoding adhesion, siderophore, Shiga-toxin-producing, and antimicrobials resistant were first reported in Vietnam with low prevalence and contributed to the pathogenesis

    Classification of genetic load

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    The term ‚Äúgenetic load‚ÄĚ refers to the accumulation of lethal and sublethal harmful mutations that significantly reduce an individual‚Äôs viability or result in their death when the mutation enters a homozygous state. Each type of genetic load in farm animals correlates with a certain type of natural or artificial selection in them. In animal husbandry, four types of genetic load are generally distinguished: mutation, immigration, segregation, and substitution

    Modification of the drug resistance of emerging milk-borne pathogens through sodium alginate-based antibiotics and nanoparticles

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    Streptococcus agalactiae and Klebsiella pneumoniae are emerging as major milk-borne pathogens. Additionally, resistance to antibiotics of pathogens is of concern. Therefore, this study investigated the prevalence and drug resistance of S. agalactiae and K. pneumoniae in mastitis milk samples and assessed the antimicrobial potential of sodium alginate (G)-stabilized MgO nanoparticles (M) and antibiotics (tylosin [T] and ampicillin [A]) against both of these pathogens. A total of n = 200 milk samples from cattle were collected using purposive sampling, and standard microbiological approaches were adopted to isolate target bacteria. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to analyze the obtained data. Four preparations, GT (gel-stabilized tylosin), GA (gel-stabilized ampicillin), GTM (tylosin and MgO nanoparticles stabilized in gel), and GAM (ampicillin and MgO nanoparticles stabilized in gel), were evaluated against both bacteria through well diffusion and broth microdilution method. The analysis revealed that 45.24% (95/210) of the milk samples were positive for mastitis, of which 11.58% (11/95) were positive for S. agalactiae and 9.47% (9/95) were positive for K. pneumoniae. S. agalactiae had a significantly higher zone of inhibition (ZOI) than K. pneumoniae against penicillin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin, whereas the opposite was observed against imipenem and erythromycin. All gel (G)-based preparations showed an increase in the percentage of ZOI compared with antibiotics alone, with GTM presenting the highest of all, i.e., 59.09 and 56.25% ZOI compared with tylosin alone against S. agalactiae and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Similarly, in a broth microdilution assay, the lowest MIC was found for K. pneumoniae (9.766 ¬Ī 0.0 őľg/mL) against GTM, followed by GT, GAM, and GA after incubation for 24 h. A similar response was noted for preparations against S. agalactiae but with a comparatively higher MIC. A significant reduction in MIC with respect to incubation time was found at 8 h and remained until at 20 h against both pathogens. The cytotoxicity of the MgO nanoparticles used in this study was significantly lower than that of the positive control. Overall, this study found that K. pneumoniae and S. agalactiae appeared higher in prevalence and antimicrobial resistance, and sodium alginate-based antibiotics and MgO nanoparticles were effective alternative approaches for tackling antimicrobial resistance

    Genetic Alternatives for Dairy Producers Who Practise Grazing

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    The decline in cow fertility has had a negative impact on all dairy producers, especially those that practise seasonal calving with pasture-based dairying. One alternative that is being tried in the United States (US) by a few graziers is to use bulls from New Zealand (NZ) because NZ producers have practised seasonal calving for some time. However, genotype-environment interaction is a concern; genetic correlations that were derived by the International Bull Evaluation Service (2004) between bull rankings from different countries were often lower for NZ than for other countries. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of daughters of NZ Friesian and Holstein artificial-insemination (AI) bulls with daughters of other Holstein AI bulls (predominantly from the US) that were in the same US herd and calved at the same time

    Untersuchungen zur √Ątiologie, dem klinischen Bild sowie M√∂glichkeiten der Therapie der Neuropathie des Nervus tibialis bei Deutsch-Holstein-K√ľhen

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    Einleitung: Periphere Neuropathien sind h√§ufige neurologische Erkrankungen des Rindes. Dabei stellt die Sch√§digung des Nervus tibialis (Tibialis-Neuropathie; TN) neben Klauenerkrankungen eine h√§ufige Lahmheitsursache bei Milchk√ľhen post partum dar. Erkrankungen des Bewegungsapparates z√§hlen neben Erkrankungen des Euters und Fruchtbarkeitsst√∂rungen zu den Hauptabgangsursachen von Milchk√ľhen. Lahmheiten sind Ausdruck von Schmerzen und beeintr√§chtigen somit ma√ügeblich das Tierwohl. Dar√ľber hinaus f√ľhren sie zu wirtschaftlichen Verlusten. Weiterhin werden periphere Neuropathien h√§ufig nicht als solche erkannt oder deren Prognose meist zu schlecht eingesch√§tzt. Dies f√ľhrt zu einem fr√ľhzeitigen Abgang der Tiere, was wiederum unwirtschaftlich ist. Ziele der Untersuchung: Im ersten Schritt sollte anhand einer Literatur√ľbersicht ein √úberblick √ľber allgemeing√ľltige Grundlagen der Neurologie sowie die klinische Auspr√§gung spezieller peripherer Neuropathien beim Rind gewonnen werden. Im zweiten Schritt sollten auf Grundlage einer prospektiven Fallserie Aussagen zum klinischen Bild, zur √Ątiologie und zu Therapie und Prognose der TN getroffen werden. Tiere, Material und Methoden: In die Fallserie wurden von Januar 2013 bis Oktober 2017 prospektiv insgesamt 88 Deutsch-Holstein-K√ľhe mit einseitiger (ETN, n = 71) und beidseitiger (BTN, n = 17) TN eingeschlossen. Einschlusskriterium war das Vorliegen deutlichen √úberk√∂tens eines Fesselgelenks einer Hintergliedma√üe in der Bewegung. Die Tiere stammten aus 31 verschiedenen Betrieben in Brandenburg (n = 2), Sachsen (n = 21), Sachsen-Anhalt (n = 3) und Th√ľringen (n = 5) und wurden in 50 F√§llen station√§r sowie in 38 F√§llen im Rahmen von Bestandsbesuchen vorgestellt. Die Studientiere wurden retrospektiv vier Gruppen zugeteilt, abh√§ngig davon, ob eine spontane Ausheilung eintrat, ob behandelt wurde und welche Art der Behandlung gew√§hlt wurde: Gruppe Spontan, spontane Ausheilung innerhalb 48 Stunden; Gruppe 0Cast, keine Behandlung und keine Ausheilung innerhalb 48 Stunden; Gruppe StV, Behandlung mit Dexamethason und St√ľtzverband; Gruppe Cast, Behandlung mit Dexamethason und Kunstharzverband. Nach Ausschluss von 20 Tieren aufgrund fehlerhafter Dokumentation der Tiernummern oder fr√ľhzeitigen Abgangs, weshalb in diesen F√§llen keine Aussage zu einer m√∂glichen Ausheilung der TN getroffen werden konnte, ergaben sich zur Auswertung Datens√§tze von insgesamt 68 K√ľhen (56 ETN, 12 BTN). Deren Aufteilung auf die vier Gruppen war wie folgt: Spontan, 5 ETN; 0Cast, 8 ETN, 3 BTN; StV, 3 ETN; Cast, 40 ETN, 9 BTN. Die Tiere der Gruppe Cast wurden entweder station√§r (CastKlin; n = 32, 24 ETN, 8 BTN) oder im Herkunftsbetrieb (CastBetr; n = 17, 16 ETN, 1 BTN) behandelt. Zur Erstvorstellung erfolgte au√üerdem eine umfassende Datenerhebung zu Vorbericht, klinischer Symptomatik (Einteilung in drei Paresegrade) sowie die labordiagnostische Untersuchung des aus der Vena jugularis entnommenen Blutes. Neben der t√§glichen Kontrolle der station√§r aufgenommenen Tiere in den ersten 14 Tagen wurden alle behandelten Tiere zu f√ľnf Zeitpunkten (14, 21, 28, 42, 56 Tage nach Erstvorstellung) nachuntersucht. Zur Abschlussuntersuchung an Tag 56 erfolgte eine erneute labordiagnostische Untersuchung des Blutes. Bis zum Studienabschluss im Oktober 2021 wurde in regelm√§√üigen Abst√§nden der Status der Studientiere erfragt. Ergebnisse: Im angegebenen Untersuchungszeitraum trat bei 2,2 % der aufgrund einer Erkrankung des Bewegungsapparates vorgestellten Deutsch-Holstein-K√ľhe eine TN auf. Die ETN war vorwiegend post partum nach Dystokie oder infolge vermehrten seitlichen Liegens aufgrund einer Grunderkrankung aufgetreten. K√ľhe mit BTN waren vor allem im Zeitraum der ersten Brunst mit Anzeichen einer zentralen Nachhandparese vorgestellt worden. Bei fast allen untersuchten Tieren wurden an Tag 0 erh√∂hte Aktivit√§ten der Muskelenzyme Kreatinkinase (CK; ETN: 98 %, BTN: 100 %) und Aspartataminotransferase (AST; ETN: 89 %, BTN: 100 %) beobachtet. Nach Behandlung der ETN war die ermittelte Ausheilungsrate deutlich h√∂her als ohne Behandlung (Cast 98 % und StV 100 % vs. 0Cast 62 %). Bei den BTN-Tieren fiel dieser beobachtete Unterschied nicht so deutlich aus (78 % vs. 67 %). Insgesamt war nach Ausheilung der TN die ermittelte √úberlebensdauer h√∂her als ohne Ausheilung (545 Tage vs. 100 Tage). Zur Abschlussuntersuchung hatten sich bei den Tieren mit ausgeheilter ETN die CK- und AST-Aktivit√§ten wieder dem Referenzbereich angen√§hert (CK: von 434 U/l auf 152 U/l; AST: von 169 U/l auf 77 U/l). Schlussfolgerungen: Die TN ist eine regelm√§√üig vorkommende und somit relevante Erkrankung von Deutsch-Holstein-K√ľhen im Einzugsgebiet der Klinik f√ľr Klauentiere der Veterin√§rmedizinischen Fakult√§t Leipzig. ETN und BTN sind als eigenst√§ndige Erkrankungen anzusehen, da sie sich ma√ügeblich in √Ątiologie, klinischem Bild und Prognose unterscheiden. Die TN geht mit einer Traumatisierung der ausgefallenen Muskulatur einher und die Stabilisierung der Gliedma√üe in physiologsicher Position mittels Cast oder Verband wirkt sich, besonders ab einem Paresegrad 2, positiv auf die Ausheilung aus. Eine genaue Differenzierung zwischen neurogener und myogener Parese ist nur mit weiterf√ľhrenden Diagnostika wie Elektrodiagnostik und Neurosonographie m√∂glich. Besonders bei ETN scheint nur ein geringgradiger Nervenschaden zugrunde zu liegen, sodass die Prognose g√ľnstig und eine Therapie aus wirtschaftlicher Sicht zu empfehlen ist. Da das Wohlbefinden der Tiere durch eine TN aufgrund von Schmerzen und Bewegungseinschr√§nkung nachweislich gest√∂rt ist, sollte die Erkrankung in den Fokus der Inzidenz- und Pr√§valenzanalyse im Rahmen der tier√§rztlichen Bestandsbetreuung genommen werden.:1. EINLEITUNG 2. LITERATUR√úBERSICHT 2.1 Pr√§ambel 2.2 L√§hmungen vom peripheren Typ im Gliedma√üenbereich des Rindes. Teil 1: Allgemeine Ursachen und spezielle L√§hmungen an Vorder- und Hintergliedma√üen (Publikation 1) 2.3 L√§hmungen vom peripheren Typ im Gliedma√üenbereich des Rindes. Teil 2: Diagnostik, Prognose und therapeutisches Vorgehen (Publikation 2) 2.4 Schmerz als Symptom einer Neuropathie ‚Äď neuropathischer Schmerz 2.5 Weiterf√ľhrende Diagnostik als Ausblick 2.5.1 Elektrodiagnostik 2.5.2 Brightness-Mode-Sonographie peripherer Nerven und der dazugeh√∂rigen Muskulatur 2.6 Zusammenfassende Schlussfolgerungen aus der Literaturrecherche 3. MATERIAL UND METHODEN 3.1 Pr√§ambel 3.2 Patientengut 3.3 Studienprotokoll und Gruppenzuteilung 3.3.1 Erstuntersuchung Anamnese Klinische Untersuchung Weiterf√ľhrende Labordiagnostik Herleitung einer m√∂glichen √Ątiologie der Tibialis-Neuropathie aus Ergebnissen der Erstuntersuchung 3.3.2 Behandlung Anlegen des Kunstharzverbandes Medikament√∂se Behandlung 3.3.3 Station√§re Aufnahme 3.3.4 Nachuntersuchungen und Therapieabschluss Folgeanamnese Einzeltier Klinische Folgeuntersuchung Verbandswechselschema Dokumentation von Druckstellen Abschlussuntersuchung 3.3.5 Studienabschluss 3.4 Foto- und Videodokumentation 3.5 Statistik 4. PUBLIKATION 3 5. PUBLIKATION 4 6. WEITERE ERGEBNISSE 6.1 Pr√§ambel 6.2 Zusammenhang zwischen Erkrankungsdauer und Paresegrad zur Erstuntersuchung 6.3 Einfluss des Betreuungsmanagements auf die Auspr√§gung von Druckstellen w√§hrend der Behandlung mit Verband 6.3.1 K√ľhe mit einseitiger, ausgeheilter Tibialis-Neuropathie und initialer Behandlung mit Kunstharzverband in der Klinik 6.3.2 K√ľhe mit einseitiger, ausgeheilter Tibialis-Neuropathie und initialer Behandlung mit Kunstharzverband im Betrieb 6.3.3 K√ľhe mit beidseitiger, ausgeheilter Tibialis-Neuropathie und initialer Behandlung mit Kunstharzverband in der Klinik und im Betrieb 7. DISKUSSION 7.1 Studiendesign und Auswahl der Studientiere 7.2 √Ątiologie der Tibialis-Parese 7.2.1 Tibialis-Neuropathie ‚Äď neurogene Parese 7.2.2 Fibrill√§re Ruptur der Muskulatur ‚Äď myogene Parese 7.3 Angewandtes Therapieschema 7.3.1 Antiphlogistika 7.3.2 Verband Verbandsart und Hilfsmittel Verhinderung von Komplikationen 7.4 Wirtschaftliche Aspekte einer Therapie 7.5 M√∂glichkeiten zur Pr√§vention 7.6 Ausblick: Kl√§rung offener Fragen durch Elektrodiagnostik und Neurosonographie 8. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG 9. SUMMARY 10. LITERATURVERZEICHNIS 11. ANHANG 12. DANKSAGUN

    Association of Staphylococcus aureus genotypes with milk or colonization of extramammary sites in Dutch dairy cattle indicates strain variation in reservoirs for intramammary infections

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    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major mastitis pathogen with a detrimental impact on udder health in dairy cattle. Although S. aureus is generally classified as a contagious mastitis pathogen, control measures aimed at preventing contagious transmission are not always effective. Previous studies showed that various extramammary sites can be colonized with S. aureus and could be a reservoir for S. aureus intramammary infections (IMI). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. aureus extramammary site colonization in Dutch dairy cattle and to compare the spa genotypes of S. aureus isolates from IMI to spa genotypes of isolates from extramammary sites. Six herds were visited and from cows with a composite milk somatic cell count ‚Č•200,000 cells/mL quarter milk samples and swabs from various extramammary sites (hock, groin, udder cleft, nares, and feces) were taken. Extramammary site samples were processed by a two-step high salt selective culture and presence of S. aureus was confirmed by femA PCR. S. aureus isolates from milk and extramammary sites were compared by spa typing. The cow level colonization varied from 0% to 73%, and the prevalence of IMI in the sampled cows varied from 0% to 61% between herds. The extramammary site with the highest prevalence of colonization was the hock (23%) and the lowest prevalence of colonization was found for the nares (5%) and feces (5%). Spa typing of S. aureus isolates from either extramammary sites or milk showed that in most herds there were one or two predominant S. aureus spa genotypes present. Different S. aureus spa genotypes could be categorized into three groups based on the distribution between milk or extramammary sites: i) predominantly milk associated, ii) associated with both milk and extramammary sites, and iii) associated with extramammary sites. In conclusion, we showed that the prevalence of extramammary site colonization differed significantly between herds and extramammary sites and that specific S. aureus spa genotypes were associated with milk (IMI) or extramammary site colonization. Extramammary S. aureus reservoirs could be a source for IMI that cannot be eradicated by intervention measures aimed at contagious mastitis pathogens

    Food biodiversity: Quantifying the unquantifiable in human diets

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    Dietary diversity is an established public health principle, and its measurement is essential for studies of diet quality and food security. However, conventional between food group scores fail to capture the nutritional variability and ecosystem services delivered by dietary richness and dissimilarity within food groups, or the relative distribution (i.e., evenness or moderation) of e.g., species or varieties across whole diets. Summarizing food biodiversity in an all-encompassing index is problematic. Therefore, various diversity indices have been proposed in ecology, yet these require methodological adaption for integration in dietary assessments. In this narrative review, we summarize the key conceptual issues underlying the measurement of food biodiversity at an edible species level, assess the ecological diversity indices previously applied to food consumption and food supply data, discuss their relative suitability, and potential amendments for use in (quantitative) dietary intake studies. Ecological diversity indices are often used without justification through the lens of nutrition. To illustrate: (i) dietary species richness fails to account for the distribution of foods across the diet or their functional traits; (ii) evenness indices, such as the Gini-Simpson index, require widely accepted relative abundance units (e.g., kcal, g, cups) and evidence-based moderation weighting factors; and (iii) functional dissimilarity indices are constructed based on an arbitrary selection of distance measures, cutoff criteria, and number of phylogenetic, nutritional, and morphological traits. Disregard for these limitations can lead to counterintuitive results and ambiguous or incorrect conclusions about the food biodiversity within diets or food systems. To ensure comparability and robustness of future research, we advocate food biodiversity indices that: (i) satisfy key axioms; (ii) can be extended to account for disparity between edible species; and (iii) are used in combination, rather than in isolation

    Dairy investment options for poverty reduction for small-scale dairy farmers in Tanzania

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    The effect of an unproductive investment could be detrimental to the investor, especially when is a dairy farmer investor who depend on earnings and may distort the productivity effort if is not approached with caution. Anyone who wish to invest in dairy farming must choose wisely, think independently to avoid follow the crowd. Ideal investment decisions in dairy would starts by best choice of breeds, feeds availability, affordability and accessibility, knowledge in proper animal husbandry and proper handling and marketing of animal products. Most farmers in Tanzania who are in dairy farming invested with different objectives, such as for prestige, for family nutrition, for manure and sale of live calves, to mention a few. This study investigating dairy cow investment and how it affects poverty situation in the families. The results show that investment in the dairy sector is the key to reliable income and leaning pole to poverty reduction in the family. Therefore, choice in investment may affect income and reduce poverty in two folds if it is done in ideal situation
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