586,887 research outputs found

    Exercise intensity-dependent effects of arm and leg-cycling on cognitive performance

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    Physiological responses to arm and leg-cycling are different, which may influence psychological and biological mechanisms that influence post-exercise cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of maximal and submaximal (absolute and relative intensity matched) arm and leg-cycling on executive function. Thirteen males (age, 24.7 ± 5.0 years) initially undertook two incremental exercise tests to volitional exhaustion for arm-cycling (82 ± 18 W) and leg-cycling (243 ± 52 W) for the determination of maximal power output. Participants subsequently performed three 20-min constant load exercise trials: (1) arm-cycling at 50% of the ergometer-specific maximal power output (41 ± 9 W), (2) leg-cycling at 50% of the ergometer-specific maximal power output (122 ± 26 W), and (3) leg-cycling at the same absolute power output as the submaximal arm-cycling trial (41 ± 9 W). An executive function task was completed before, immediately after and 15-min after each exercise test. Exhaustive leg-cycling increased reaction time (p 0.05). Improvements in reaction time following arm-cycling were maintained for at least 15-min post exercise (p = 0.008, d = -0.73). Arm and leg-cycling performed at the same relative intensity elicit comparable improvements in cognitive performance. These findings suggest that individuals restricted to arm exercise possess a similar capacity to elicit an exercise-induced cognitive performance benefit

    Exploring potential of crowdsourced geographic information in studies of active travel and health: Strava data and cycling behaviour

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    In development of sustainable transportation and green city, policymakers encourage people to commute by cycling and walking instead of motor vehicles in cities. One the one hand, cycling and walking enables decrease in air pollution emissions. On the other hand, cycling and walking offer health benefits by increasing people’s physical activity. Earlier studies on investigating spatial patterns of active travel (cycling and walking) are limited by lacks of spatially fine-grained data. In recent years, with the development of information and communications technology, GPS-enabled devices are popular and portable. With smart phones or smart watches, people are able to record their cycling or walking GPS traces when they are moving. A large number of cyclists and pedestrians upload their GPS traces to sport social media to share their historical traces with other people. Those sport social media thus become a potential source for spatially fine-grained cycling and walking data. Very recently, Strava Metro offer aggregated cycling and walking data with high spatial granularity. Strava Metro aggregated a large amount of cycling and walking GPS traces of Strava users to streets or intersections across a city. Accordingly, as a kind of crowdsourced geographic information, the aggregated data is useful for investigating spatial patterns of cycling and walking activities, and thus is of high potential in understanding cycling or walking behavior at a large spatial scale. This study is a start of demonstrating usefulness of Strava Metro data for exploring cycling or walking patterns at a large scal

    Effect of detraining on bone and muscle tissue in subjects with chronic spinal cord injury after a period of electrically-stimulated cycling: a small cohort study

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    Objective: To investigate adaptive changes in bone and muscle parameters in the paralysed limbs after de-training or reduced functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced cycling following high-volume FES-cycling in chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects: Five subjects with motor-sensory complete SCI (age 38.6 years, lesion duration 11.4 years) were included. Four subjects stopped FES-cycling completely after the training phase whereas one continued reduced FES-cycling (2-3 times/week, for 30min). Methods: Bone and muscle parameters were assessed in the legs using peripheral quantitative computed tomography at six and twelve months after cessation of high-volume FES-cycling. Results: Gains achieved in the distal femur by high-volume FES-cycling were partly maintained at one year of detraining: 73.0% in trabecular bone mineral density (BMD), 63.8% in total BMD, 59.4% in bone mineral content and 22.1% in muscle cross-sectional area (CSAmuscle) in the thigh. The subject who continued reduced FES-cycling maintained 96.2% and 95.0% of the previous gain in total and trabecu-lar BMD, and 98.5% in CSAmuscle. Conclusion: Bone and muscle benefits achieved by one year of high-volume FES-cycling are partly preserved after 12 months of detraining whereas reduced cycling maintains bone and muscle mass gained. This suggests that high-volume FES-cycling has clinical relevance for at least 1y after detraining

    Assessing the environmental characteristics of cycling routes to school : a study on the reliability and validity of a Google Street View-based audit

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    Background: Google Street View provides a valuable and efficient alternative to observe the physical environment compared to on-site fieldwork. However, studies on the use, reliability and validity of Google Street View in a cycling-to-school context are lacking. We aimed to study the intra-, inter-rater reliability and criterion validity of EGA-Cycling (Environmental Google Street View Based Audit - Cycling to school), a newly developed audit using Google Street View to assess the physical environment along cycling routes to school. Methods: Parents (n = 52) of 11-to-12-year old Flemish children, who mostly cycled to school, completed a questionnaire and identified their child's cycling route to school on a street map. Fifty cycling routes of 11-to-12-year olds were identified and physical environmental characteristics along the identified routes were rated with EGA-Cycling (5 subscales; 37 items), based on Google Street View. To assess reliability, two researchers performed the audit. Criterion validity of the audit was examined by comparing the ratings based on Google Street View with ratings through on-site assessments. Results: Intra-rater reliability was high (kappa range 0.47-1.00). Large variations in the inter-rater reliability (kappa range -0.03-1.00) and criterion validity scores (kappa range -0.06-1.00) were reported, with acceptable inter-rater reliability values for 43% of all items and acceptable criterion validity for 54% of all items. Conclusions: EGA-Cycling can be used to assess physical environmental characteristics along cycling routes to school. However, to assess the micro-environment specifically related to cycling, on-site assessments have to be added

    The effect of thermal cycling on the high-temperature creep behaviour of a single crystal nickel-based superalloy

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    Isothermal and thermal cycling creep behaviours of a single crystal nickel-based superalloy have been studied by means of tensile tests at 1150 °C and 80 MPa. We have demonstrated that thermal cycling creep rates are faster than isothermal creep rates and that lifetimes at high temperatures are shorter for creep tests under thermal cycling conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that thermal cycling creep lifetime increases as the thermal cycle frequency decreases

    Association between active commuting and incident cardiovascular disease, cancer, and mortality: prospective cohort study

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    Objective: To investigate the association between active commuting and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and all cause mortality. Design: Prospective population based study. Setting: UK Biobank. Participants: 263 450 participants (106 674 (52%) women; mean age 52.6), recruited from 22 sites across the UK. The exposure variable was the mode of transport used (walking, cycling, mixed mode v non-active (car or public transport)) to commute to and from work on a typical day. Main outcome measures: Incident (fatal and non-fatal) CVD and cancer, and deaths from CVD, cancer, or any causes. Results: 2430 participants died (496 were related to CVD and 1126 to cancer) over a median of 5.0 years (interquartile range 4.3-5.5) follow-up. There were 3748 cancer and 1110 CVD events. In maximally adjusted models, commuting by cycle and by mixed mode including cycling were associated with lower risk of all cause mortality (cycling hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.83, P=0.002; mixed mode cycling 0.76, 0.58 to 1.00, P<0.05), cancer incidence (cycling 0.55, 0.44 to 0.69, P<0.001; mixed mode cycling 0.64, 0.45 to 0.91, P=0.01), and cancer mortality (cycling 0.60, 0.40 to 0.90, P=0.01; mixed mode cycling 0.68, 0.57 to 0.81, P<0.001). Commuting by cycling and walking were associated with a lower risk of CVD incidence (cycling 0.54, 0.33 to 0.88, P=0.01; walking 0.73, 0.54 to 0.99, P=0.04) and CVD mortality (cycling 0.48, 0.25 to 0.92, P=0.03; walking 0.64, 0.45 to 0.91, P=0.01). No statistically significant associations were observed for walking commuting and all cause mortality or cancer outcomes. Mixed mode commuting including walking was not noticeably associated with any of the measured outcomes. Conclusions: Cycle commuting was associated with a lower risk of CVD, cancer, and all cause mortality. Walking commuting was associated with a lower risk of CVD independent of major measured confounding factors. Initiatives to encourage and support active commuting could reduce risk of death and the burden of important chronic conditions

    What interventions increase commuter cycling? A systematic review.

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    OBJECTIVE: To identify interventions that will increase commuter cycling. SETTING: All settings where commuter cycling might take place. PARTICIPANTS: Adults (aged 18+) in any country. INTERVENTIONS: Individual, group or environmental interventions including policies and infrastructure. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A wide range of 'changes in commuter cycling' indicators, including frequency of cycling, change in workforce commuting mode, change in commuting population transport mode, use of infrastructure by defined populations and population modal shift. RESULTS: 12 studies from 6 countries (6 from the UK, 2 from Australia, 1 each from Sweden, Ireland, New Zealand and the USA) met the inclusion criteria. Of those, 2 studies were randomised control trials and the remainder preintervention and postintervention studies. The majority of studies (n=7) evaluated individual-based or group-based interventions and the rest environmental interventions. Individual-based or group-based interventions in 6/7 studies were found to increase commuter cycling of which the effect was significant in only 3/6 studies. Environmental interventions, however, had small but positive effects in much larger but more difficult to define populations. Almost all studies had substantial loss to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Despite commuter cycling prevalence varying widely between countries, robust evidence of what interventions will increase commuter cycling in low cycling prevalence nations is sparse. Wider environmental interventions that make cycling conducive appear to reach out to hard to define but larger populations. This could mean that environmental interventions, despite their small positive effects, have greater public health significance than individual-based or group-based measures because those interventions encourage a larger number of people to integrate physical activity into their everyday lives

    Safe streets save lives

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    The Palmetto Cycling Coalition, in collaboration with Bikelaw and the South Carolina Department of Public Safety is pleased to present Safe Streets Save Lives, a long-term, strategic bicycle-safety campaign in South Carolina to bring public awareness to the need for safer roadways for bicyclists. The campaign began with the production of four videos. Two types of curricula were developed to compliment the videos with more direct instruction. What you’re reading now is meant for a classroom setting, but it can be taught by anyone, including schoolteachers, community & church leaders, and others

    Understanding walking and cycling:summary of key findings and recommendations

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    It is widely recognized that there is a need to increase levels of active and sustainable travel in British urban areas. The Understanding Walking and Cycling (UWAC) project, funded by the EPSRC, has examined the factors influencing everyday travel decisions and proposes a series of policy measures to increase levels of walking and cycling for short trips in urban areas. A wide range of both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in four English towns (Lancaster, Leeds, Leicester and Worcester), including a questionnaire survey, spatial analysis of the built environment, interviews (static and whilst mobile) and detailed ethnographies. Key findings of the research are that whilst attitudes to walking and cycling are mostly positive or neutral, many people who would like to engage in more active travel fail to do so due to a combination of factors. These can be summarised as: Concerns about the physical environment, especially with regard to safety when walking or cycling; The difficulty of fitting walking and cycling into complex household routines (especially with young children); The perception that walking and cycling are in some ways abnormal things to do. It is suggested that policies to increase levels of walking and cycling should focus not only on improving infrastructure (for instance through fully segregated cycle routes along main roads and restriction on vehicle speeds), but also must tackle broader social, economic, cultural and legal factors that currently inhibit walking and cycling. Together, such changes can create an environment in which driving for short trips in urban areas is seen as abnormal and walking or cycling seem the obvious choices. A joint project by by Lancaster University, Oxford Brookes University and the University of Leeds