1,365 research outputs found

    The Quality Characteristics of Camel Sausage Formulated with Different Levels of Whey Protein Powder

    Full text link
    In this study camel sausage was formulated with different levels (1, 2, 3 and 4%) of whey protein powder (WPP). Raw and cooked sausage samples were evaluated for physical properties, cooking measurements, shrinkage, color parameters, emulsion capacity (EC) and emulsion stability (ES) and sensory attributes. Using whey protein powder increased pH value, moisture retention, emulsion capacity and emulsion stability while, the cooking loss and shrinkage were decreased. Camel sausages formulated with 4% whey protein powder (WPP) had higher emulsion stability and emulsion capacity, lower cooking loss, better color and more acceptable than other sausage samples. However addition of 4% whey protein powder can be improved the quality characteristics of camel sausages

    A MALDI-TOF MS approach for mammalian, human, and formula milks’ profiling

    Get PDF
    Human milk composition is dynamic, and substitute formulae are intended to mimic its protein content. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potentiality of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), followed by multivariate data analyses as a tool to analyze the peptide profiles of mammalian, human, and formula milks. Breast milk samples from women at different lactation stages (2 (n = 5), 30 (n = 6), 60 (n = 5), and 90 (n = 4) days postpartum), and milk from donkeys (n = 4), cows (n = 4), buffaloes (n = 7), goats (n = 4), ewes (n = 5), and camels (n = 2) were collected. Different brands (n = 4) of infant formulae were also analyzed. Protein content (<30 kDa) was analyzed by MS, and data were exported for statistical elaborations. The mass spectra for each milk closely clustered together, whereas different milk samples resulted in well-separated mass spectra. Human samples formed a cluster in which colostrum constituted a well-defined subcluster. None of the milk formulae correlated with animal or human milk, although they were specifically characterized and correlated well with each other. These findings propose MALDI-TOF MS milk profiling as an analytical tool to discriminate, in a blinded way, different milk types. As each formula has a distinct specificity, shifting a baby from one to another formula implies a specific proteomic exposure. These profiles may assist in milk proteomics for easiness of use and minimization of costs, suggesting that the MALDI-TOF MS pipelines may be useful for not only milk adulteration assessments but also for the characterization of banked milk specimens in pediatric clinical settings

    Novel camel milk-derived proteins and their application in the management of acne vulgaris

    Get PDF
    Acne vulgaris, caused by the bacterium P. acnes, is the most common cutaneous disorder in adolescents. Acne is not a life-threatening condition, however, it has significant psychological and physical effects on patients. P. acnes is capable of causing remarkable inflammatory responses. Topical therapy is advisable in acne treatment in mild to moderate acne conditions. Recently, available treatments for acne are mostly based on antibiotics and retinoids. The use of antibiotics has the limitations of developing bacterial resistance, while retinoids are highly teratogenic. The bacterial resistance and teratogenicity of isotretinoin led scientists to search for more potent and safer therapeutic options. Camel milk has been used in the preparation of pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions such as anti-acne products. It was found that camel milk composition is closer to the human milk. Passive immunity is provided to new-borns by Immunoglobulins present in colostrum until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunizing a mammal with these pathogens or their antigens. Immunized milk products are preparations made of such hyper-immune antibodies enriched from it. Camel milk and milk-derived products have a growing potential therapeutic value. The objective of this research is to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of immunized camel milk whey and its components against P. acnes and to develop a formula that harnesses all its beneficial properties. P. acnes was heat-killed in culture to obtain their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). The OMPs were mapped and quantified using SDS-PAGE and Bradford Assay, respectively. OMPs were used to prepare a vaccination injected into female lactating camels in timely manner. The immunized camel milk was collected then pasteurized, delipidized, de-caseinated, and freeze-dried to obtain the whey into powder form. The anti-P.acnes antibodies in the immunized camel whey were separated using Protein G and Protein A Chromatography and quantified by SDS-PAGE and ELISA, respectively. Then, the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including PGRPs and Lactoferrin were isolated by Heparin Affinity Chromatography, and mapped by SDS-PAGE. The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of the immunized camel whey and its constituents against P. acnes was evaluated in vitro. In vivo activity was also evaluated using rabbit ear model. After the activity of the immunized camel whey was confirmed, four topical formulae were developed and their composition and preparation protocol were patented. The findings of this research imply that the constituents of immunized camel milk whey (i.e. polyclonal anti-P. acnes antibodies, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), and lactoferrin) possess significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes, 90% and 70%, respectively. Topical formulae including; facial wash, serum, cream and gel enriched with 3% to 5% of immunized camel milk whey were developed and their activity against P. acnes was evaluated. Immunized camel milk whey that has been developed in this research exerts significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes and the unique composition formulated has been patented. Furthermore, the stability of the topical cream was validated to show that the antibodies in the cream formula retained around 75% of their activity.Acne vulgaris, caused by the bacterium P. acnes, is the most common cutaneous disorder in adolescents. Acne is not a life-threatening condition, however, it has significant psychological and physical effects on patients. P. acnes is capable of causing remarkable inflammatory responses. Topical therapy is advisable in acne treatment in mild to moderate acne conditions. Recently, available treatments for acne are mostly based on antibiotics and retinoids. The use of antibiotics has the limitations of developing bacterial resistance, while retinoids are highly teratogenic. The bacterial resistance and teratogenicity of isotretinoin led scientists to search for more potent and safer therapeutic options. Camel milk has been used in the preparation of pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions such as anti-acne products. It was found that camel milk composition is closer to the human milk. Passive immunity is provided to new-borns by Immunoglobulins present in colostrum until its own immune system matures. The concentration in colostrum of specific antibodies against pathogens can be raised by immunizing a mammal with these pathogens or their antigens. Immunized milk products are preparations made of such hyper-immune antibodies enriched from it. Camel milk and milk-derived products have a growing potential therapeutic value. The objective of this research is to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of immunized camel milk whey and its components against P. acnes and to develop a formula that harnesses all its beneficial properties. P. acnes was heat-killed in culture to obtain their outer membrane proteins (OMPs). The OMPs were mapped and quantified using SDS-PAGE and Bradford Assay, respectively. OMPs were used to prepare a vaccination injected into female lactating camels in timely manner. The immunized camel milk was collected then pasteurized, delipidized, de-caseinated, and freeze-dried to obtain the whey into powder form. The anti-P.acnes antibodies in the immunized camel whey were separated using Protein G and Protein A Chromatography and quantified by SDS-PAGE and ELISA, respectively. Then, the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including PGRPs and Lactoferrin were isolated by Heparin Affinity Chromatography, and mapped by SDS-PAGE. The antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of the immunized camel whey and its constituents against P. acnes was evaluated in vitro. In vivo activity was also evaluated using rabbit ear model. After the activity of the immunized camel whey was confirmed, four topical formulae were developed and their composition and preparation protocol were patented. The findings of this research imply that the constituents of immunized camel milk whey (i.e. polyclonal anti-P. acnes antibodies, peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), and lactoferrin) possess significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes, 90% and 70%, respectively. Topical formulae including; facial wash, serum, cream and gel enriched with 3% to 5% of immunized camel milk whey were developed and their activity against P. acnes was evaluated. Immunized camel milk whey that has been developed in this research exerts significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes and the unique composition formulated has been patented. Furthermore, the stability of the topical cream was validated to show that the antibodies in the cream formula retained around 75% of their activity

    Characterisation of proteins in camel milk, the effect of heat treatment on physicochemical and functional properties related to yogurt

    Get PDF
    Camel milk plays a central role in the food supply of Eastern African and Middle Eastern countries (e.g. Kenya, Somalia, Saudi, and Ethiopia), home to the majority of the world’s camel population. Raw, and traditionally fermented camel milk has become increasingly commercialised and consumed in urban areas. This has led to an increased interest in the processing of camel milk for the urban market, with skimmed camel milk casein and whey powders soon to be commercialised, in a manner similar to the already widely available bovine dairy powders. However, little information is currently available concerning the effects of different processing methods (e.g. thermal treatment) on camel milk fractions. Currently there are no camel milk derived products, such as yoghurt or cheese, available in local Saudi supermarkets. Furthermore, the abundance of bioactive substances in camel milk have been reported to have useful effects; one of the most prominent is the anti-diabetic benefits revealed by in vivo studies. However, the presence of insulin in camel milk still remains to be proven. The aims of this thesis are twofold. The first area (Chapters 2, 3 and 4) describe the effect of heat treatment on camel milk components and their functional properties in an oil and water emulsion, and in yoghurt. In order to test these functional properties, camel skimmed milk, whey and casein were prepared and freeze dried. The key novel findings include: skimmed milk that had been heat treated and freeze dried showed significantly improved functionality for use in emulsions and yoghurts, whereas heat treated whey did showed no significantly enhanced functional properties. Furthermore, non-heated freeze dried casein significantly enhanced curd formation in yoghurt, and resulted in a smooth texture. Two fermented yoghurts were developed containing heat treated skimmed milk powder or casein with similar textural properties to bovine milk commercial yoghurt, that were acceptable in taste and texture, as determined by an independent study for sensory evaluation. The second area of this study (Chapter 5) concerned the characterisation of insulin in camel milk. As it was confirmed by previous studies that the presence of high concentration of insulin in camel milk comparing to bovine milk. Key findings were that no protein with a characteristic molecular weight similar to bovine or human insulin (5.8 KDa) could be detected using Western Blotting; however, a 62 KDa protein showed consistent immune reactivity. ELISA results showed high immune reactivity in camel whey. An in vivo assay showed biological insulin like activity in camel milk, but the validity of the assay still needs to be confirmed

    Study of the Different Ways of Proteins Extraction From Sheep and Cow Whey for “Urda” Cheese Production

    Get PDF
    The necessary stage of technological process of “Urda” albumin cheese production is whey proteins extraction from sheep whey (in classic technology of product) or from the whey mixtures, offered in the work. For whey proteins extraction from whey the following ways are used: thermal, acid, acid-alkaline and chlorine-calcium.There was established the equal dependence of the influence of the way of proteins extraction from both sheep and cow whey on the output of protein mass.The most output of protein mass (3,47±0,10 %) is at the chlorine-calcium way of proteins extraction, a bit less – 3,41±0,08 % – at the acid-alkaline way. But the acidity of such protein mass, received by the chlorine-calcium and acid-alkaline ways is not high – 37,2±1,8 and 45,6±1,4 % respectively that negatively influences the gustatory qualities of product. The least output is registered at the thermal way. Albumin cheese, received from such protein mass, was the best by its gustatory qualities. The output of protein mass from sheep whey is 1,60 times higher than from cow whey. The mass share of proteins in protein mass, received from sheep whey is by 6,9…8,0 % higher comparing with one, received from cow whey.Protein mass, received from sheep whey by the chlorine-calcium and acid-alkaline ways has the low titrated acidity. Cheese, received from protein mass, received of sheep whey by the acid method, has the extremely high acidity values (115,5±1,5 °Т), excessive sour-milk flavor and smell. These results don-t allow to provide the long storage term. That is why it is recommended to use the thermal way for proteins extraction from sheep whey and for proteins extraction from cow way in the technology of “Urda” albumin cheese.So the thermal way of proteins extraction from the mixture of sheep and cow whey in ratio 1:1 or 3:1 can be used for “Urda” albumin cheese production. The use of cow whey gives a possibility to cheapen the product because cow whey is cheaper than sheep one. Such cheese has the improved organoleptic parameters, namely homogenous consistence, tender sour-milk flavor and smell

    Characterization and Bioactive Properties of Camel Whey Protein Hydrolysate Generated With Gastric and Pancreatic Proteases

    Get PDF
    Camel milk has been used for its nutritional and therapeutic benefits since ancient times. Previously, whole camel milk and casein proteins have been explored for their potential bioactive properties. However, studies on camel milk whey proteins and their hydrolysates are still scarce. Hence, the aim of the proposed thesis was to evaluate camel whey proteins and their hydrolysates for potential bioactivities like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and anti-cholesterol properties. Production of the hydrolysates was carried out using three digestive enzymes – pepsin, trypsin and chymotrypsin for 3 and 6 h of hydrolysis time. Hydrolysates were characterized by degree of hydrolysis (DH) and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). In vitro experiments were performed to evaluate the bioactive properties of different camel whey protein hydrolysates (CWPHs). Results revealed that CWPHs showed DH ranging from 11 to 47.5%, with chymotrypsin (6 h) and trypsin (3 h) exhibiting highest and lowest DH, respectively. RP-HPLC analysis revealed that α-lactalbumin underwent complete degradation and newer shorter peptides were generated. Chymotrypsin generated CWPHs demonstrated highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH) and 2,2\u27-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities, while trypsin generated CWPHs displayed highest metal chelating activity. CWPHs showed markedly greater antimicrobial activity than un-hydrolyzed whey against all pathogenic bacteria tested. Anti-cholesterol property via inhibition of cholesterol esterase and lipase, and antihypertensive property via angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition were found to be highest in pepsin (6 h) and (3 h) generated CWPHs, respectively. CWPHs also displayed potential antidiabetic activity compared to intact whey proteins, where pepsin and chymotrypsin generated CWPHs showed higher inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), α-glucosidase and α-amylase (P \u3c0.05). Overall, CWPHs exhibited improved antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic properties as well as ACE, cholesterol esterase, and lipase inhibitory effects compared to intact whey proteins in the in vitro conditions. Therefore, CWPHs could be targeted for utilization as bioactive ingredient in functional foods and nutraceuticals

    Composition and characteristics of camel milk

    Get PDF

    Effects of industrial processing methods on camel skimmed milk properties

    Get PDF
    Effects of pasteurisation (high-temperature-short-time; HTST), ultra-high-temperature (UHT), and high-pressure (HP) treatments on some physical and chemical properties of camel milk (CM), including whey protein denaturation, colour change, casein micelle size, and rennet coagulation time (RCT), was investigated. UHT treatment caused the biggest colour change and highest whey protein denaturation in CM; in contrast, the effects of HP treatments on these properties were considerably less. Casein micelle size decreased after all treatments. The RCT of CM was significantly delayed and coagulum strength (G′) decreased after HTST. HP treatment at 200 and 400 MPa increased the RCT of CM and the G′ value was the highest after treatment at 200 MPa. Processing at 600 and 800 MPa inhibited coagulation of CM. The effects of both thermal and non-thermal treatments on many constituents and properties of CM were different from those on constituents and properties of bovine milk
    corecore