96,603 research outputs found

    El uso de los resultados españoles de PISA en publicaciones científicas

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    p. 183-202En la última década, el interés por los resultados de PISA ha crecido, tanto en el debate público como en el uso de los datos para la investigación. El objetivo de este estudio consiste en analizar la utilización de los resultados españoles de PISA por parte de la comunidad científica. Se realizó un análisis bibliométrico de 119 artículos científicos incluidos en las bases de datos Scopus, Eric EBSCOHost y Web of Science entre 2002 y 2019 mediante análisis de frecuencias, análisis MDS y regresiones logísticas binarias. Los resultados reflejan el creciente interés por los resultados españoles de PISA desde 2005 hasta la actualidad, perteneciendo los autores principalmente al ámbito universitario de la Educación. Respecto al uso de la información de PISA, la mayoría de los estudios emplean los datos como vía para generar conocimiento, siendo los temas socioeconómicos como la familia y la equidad los que han tenido una mayor presencia junto al rendimiento de los estudiantes. Se concluye que, a pesar de que PISA ha tardado en tener impacto entre la comunidad académica española, sus resultados son cada vez más utilizados como fuente de información primaria para la realización de estudios detallados sobre temas muy diversos. No obstante, a su vez, PISA se utiliza de forma genérica como indicador de calidad del sistema educativo, sin entrar en detalle en el análisis contextualizado del rendimiento en las competencias objeto de estudio.S

    The JCMT BISTRO Survey: Multi-wavelength polarimetry of bright regions in NGC 2071 in the far-infrared/submillimetre range, with POL-2 and HAWC+

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    Polarized dust emission is a key tracer in the study of interstellar medium and of star formation. The observed polarization, however, is a product of magnetic field structure, dust grain properties and grain alignment efficiency, as well as their variations in the line of sight, making it difficult to interpret polarization unambiguously. The comparison of polarimetry at multiple wavelengths is a possible way of mitigating this problem. We use data from HAWC+/SOFIA and from SCUBA-2/POL-2 (from the BISTRO survey) to analyse the NGC 2071 molecular cloud at 154, 214 and 850 μm. The polarization angle changes significantly with wavelength over part of NGC 2071, suggesting a change in magnetic field morphology on the line of sight as each wavelength best traces different dust populations. Other possible explanations are the existence of more than one polarization mechanism in the cloud or scattering from very large grains. The observed change of polarization fraction with wavelength, and the 214-to-154 μm polarization ratio in particular, are difficult to reproduce with current dust models under the assumption of uniform alignment efficiency. We also show that the standard procedure of using monochromatic intensity as a proxy for column density may produce spurious results at HAWC+ wavelengths. Using both long-wavelength (POL-2, 850 μm) and short-wavelength (HAWC+, ≲200μm) polarimetry is key in obtaining these results. This study clearly shows the importance of multi-wavelength polarimetry at submillimeter bands to understand the dust properties of molecular clouds and the relationship between magnetic field and star formation

    The need for robust critique of arts and health research: young people, art therapy and mental health

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    We describe work in progress to conduct a systematic review of research on effects of arts-based programs for mental health in young people. We are at the stage of searching for relevant studies through major databases and screening extant systematic reviews for additional research which meet our inclusion criteria. At this stage, however, concerns have arisen regarding both the quality of existing primary studies and of recently published systematic reviews in this area of arts and health. As a case in point, in this paper we focus on one research report on art therapy with adolescent girls and its inclusion in three systematic reviews. We demonstrate that the reviews fail to undertake a robust critique of the Bazargan and Pakdaman paper and that the paper and reviews are flawed. Drawing on recent criticisms of systematic reviewing, we consider the value of proceeding with our systematic review as initially planned. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2022 Grebosz-Haring, Thun-Hohenstein, Schuchter-Wiegand, Irons, Bathke, Phillips and Clift.

    Strung pieces: on the aesthetics of television fiction series

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    As layered and long works, television fiction series have aesthetic properties that are built over time, bit by bit. This thesis develops a group of concepts that enable the study of these properties, It argues that a series is made of strung pieces, a system of related elements. The text begins by considering this sequential form within the fields of film and television. This opening chapter defines the object and methodology of research, arguing for a non-essentialist distinction between cinema and television and against the adequacy of textual and contextual analyses as approaches to the aesthetics of these shows. It proposes instead that these programmes should be described as televisual works that can be scrutinised through aesthetic analysis. The next chapters propose a sequence of interrelated concepts. The second chapter contends that series are composed of building blocks that can be either units into which series are divided or motifs that unify series and are dispersed across their pans. These blocks are patterned according to four kinds of relations or principles of composition. Repetition and variation are treated in tandem in the third chapter because of their close connection, given that variation emerges from established repetition. Exception and progression are also discussed together in the fourth chapter since they both require a long view of these serial works. The former, in order to be recognised as a deviation from the patterns of repetition and variation. The latter, In order to be understood in Its many dimensions as the series advances. Each of these concepts is further detailed with additional distinctions between types of units, motifs, repetitions, variations, and exceptions, using illustrative examples from numerous shows. In contrast, the section on progression uses a single series as case study, Carnivàle (2003-05), because this is the overarching principle that encompasses all the others. The conclusion considers the findings of the research and suggests avenues for their application

    Studies of strategic performance management for classical organizations theory & practice

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    Nowadays, the activities of "Performance Management" have spread very broadly in actually every part of business and management. There are numerous practitioners and researchers from very different disciplines, who are involved in exploring the different contents of performance management. In this thesis, some relevant historic developments in performance management are first reviewed. This includes various theories and frameworks of performance management. Then several management science techniques are developed for assessing performance management, including new methods in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and Soft System Methodology (SSM). A theoretical framework for performance management and its practical procedures (five phases) are developed for "classic" organizations using soft system thinking, and the relationship with the existing theories are explored. Eventually these results are applied in three case studies to verify our theoretical development. One of the main contributions of this work is to point out, and to systematically explore the basic idea that the effective forms and structures of performance management for an organization are likely to depend greatly on the organizational configuration, in order to coordinate well with other management activities in the organization, which has seemingly been neglected in the existing literature of performance management research in the sense that there exists little known research that associated particular forms of performance management with the explicit assumptions of organizational configuration. By applying SSM, this thesis logically derives some main functional blocks of performance management in 'classic' organizations and clarifies the relationships between performance management and other management activities. Furthermore, it develops some new tools and procedures, which can hierarchically decompose organizational strategies and produce a practical model of specific implementation steps for "classic" organizations. Our approach integrates popular types of performance management models. Last but not least, this thesis presents findings from three major cases, which are quite different organizations in terms of management styles, ownership, and operating environment, to illustrate the fliexbility of the developed theoretical framework

    Unpleasant actuarial arithmetic: fair contribution rates for defined benefit pension schemes

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    We derive key properties of the actuarially fair contribution rate for defined benefit (DB) schemes, that equates scheme assets to liabilities for any given scheme member. The unpleasant actuarial arithmetic of both increased life expectancy and (especially) negative real yields has resulted in a massive rise in the fair contribution rate over recent decades. At present there appears to be little prospect of these rises being reversed. We analyse the implications for the viability of DB schemes, and consider the (potentially significant) impact of incorporating systematic risk into benefits

    In search of 'The people of La Manche': A comparative study of funerary practices in the Transmanche region during the late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age (250BC-1500BC)

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    This research project sets out to discover whether archaeological evidence dating between 2500 BC - 1500 BC from supposed funerary contexts in Kent, flanders and north-eastern Transmanche France is sufficient to make valid comparisons between social and cultural structures on either side of the short-sea Channel region. Evidence from the beginning of the period primarily comes in the form of the widespread Beaker phenomenon. Chapter 5 shows that this class of data is abundant in Kent but quite sparse in the Continental zones - most probably because it has not survived well. This problem also affects the human depositional evidence catalogued in Chapter 6, particularly in Fanders but also in north-eastern Transmanche France. This constricts comparative analysis, however, the abundant data from Kent means that general trends are still discernible. The quality and volume of data relating to the distribution, location, morphology and use of circular monuments in all three zones is far better - as demonstrated in Chapter 7 -mostly due to extensive aerial surveying over several decades. When the datasets are taken as a whole, it becomes possible to successfully apply various forms of comparative analyses. Most remarkably, this has revealed that some monuments apparently have encoded within them a sophisticated and potentially symbolically charged geometric shape. This, along with other less contentious evidence, demonstrates a level of conformity that strongly suggests a stratum of cultural homogeneity existed throughout the Transmanche region during the period 2500 BC - 1500 BC. The fact that such changes as are apparent seem to have developed simultaneously in each of the zones adds additional weight to the theory that contact throughout the Transmanche region was endemic. Even so, it may not have been continuous; there may actually have been times of relative isolation - the data is simply too course to eliminate such a possibility

    Anytime algorithms for ROBDD symmetry detection and approximation

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    Reduced Ordered Binary Decision Diagrams (ROBDDs) provide a dense and memory efficient representation of Boolean functions. When ROBDDs are applied in logic synthesis, the problem arises of detecting both classical and generalised symmetries. State-of-the-art in symmetry detection is represented by Mishchenko's algorithm. Mishchenko showed how to detect symmetries in ROBDDs without the need for checking equivalence of all co-factor pairs. This work resulted in a practical algorithm for detecting all classical symmetries in an ROBDD in O(|G|³) set operations where |G| is the number of nodes in the ROBDD. Mishchenko and his colleagues subsequently extended the algorithm to find generalised symmetries. The extended algorithm retains the same asymptotic complexity for each type of generalised symmetry. Both the classical and generalised symmetry detection algorithms are monolithic in the sense that they only return a meaningful answer when they are left to run to completion. In this thesis we present efficient anytime algorithms for detecting both classical and generalised symmetries, that output pairs of symmetric variables until a prescribed time bound is exceeded. These anytime algorithms are complete in that given sufficient time they are guaranteed to find all symmetric pairs. Theoretically these algorithms reside in O(n³+n|G|+|G|³) and O(n³+n²|G|+|G|³) respectively, where n is the number of variables, so that in practice the advantage of anytime generality is not gained at the expense of efficiency. In fact, the anytime approach requires only very modest data structure support and offers unique opportunities for optimisation so the resulting algorithms are very efficient. The thesis continues by considering another class of anytime algorithms for ROBDDs that is motivated by the dearth of work on approximating ROBDDs. The need for approximation arises because many ROBDD operations result in an ROBDD whose size is quadratic in the size of the inputs. Furthermore, if ROBDDs are used in abstract interpretation, the running time of the analysis is related not only to the complexity of the individual ROBDD operations but also the number of operations applied. The number of operations is, in turn, constrained by the number of times a Boolean function can be weakened before stability is achieved. This thesis proposes a widening that can be used to both constrain the size of an ROBDD and also ensure that the number of times that it is weakened is bounded by some given constant. The widening can be used to either systematically approximate an ROBDD from above (i.e. derive a weaker function) or below (i.e. infer a stronger function). The thesis also considers how randomised techniques may be deployed to improve the speed of computing an approximation by avoiding potentially expensive ROBDD manipulation

    Facial expression recognition and intensity estimation.

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    Doctoral Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban.Facial Expression is one of the profound non-verbal channels through which human emotion state is inferred from the deformation or movement of face components when facial muscles are activated. Facial Expression Recognition (FER) is one of the relevant research fields in Computer Vision (CV) and Human-Computer Interraction (HCI). Its application is not limited to: robotics, game, medical, education, security and marketing. FER consists of a wealth of information. Categorising the information into primary emotion states only limit its performance. This thesis considers investigating an approach that simultaneously predicts the emotional state of facial expression images and the corresponding degree of intensity. The task also extends to resolving FER ambiguous nature and annotation inconsistencies with a label distribution learning method that considers correlation among data. We first proposed a multi-label approach for FER and its intensity estimation using advanced machine learning techniques. According to our findings, this approach has not been considered for emotion and intensity estimation in the field before. The approach used problem transformation to present FER as a multilabel task, such that every facial expression image has unique emotion information alongside the corresponding degree of intensity at which the emotion is displayed. A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) with a sigmoid function at the final layer is the classifier for the model. The model termed ML-CNN (Multilabel Convolutional Neural Network) successfully achieve concurrent prediction of emotion and intensity estimation. ML-CNN prediction is challenged with overfitting and intraclass and interclass variations. We employ Visual Geometric Graphics-16 (VGG-16) pretrained network to resolve the overfitting challenge and the aggregation of island loss and binary cross-entropy loss to minimise the effect of intraclass and interclass variations. The enhanced ML-CNN model shows promising results and outstanding performance than other standard multilabel algorithms. Finally, we approach data annotation inconsistency and ambiguity in FER data using isomap manifold learning with Graph Convolutional Networks (GCN). The GCN uses the distance along the isomap manifold as the edge weight, which appropriately models the similarity between adjacent nodes for emotion predictions. The proposed method produces a promising result in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.Author's List of Publication is on page xi of this thesis
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