3,424,526 research outputs found

    Surveyor ejecta detector model ML 256-1 and 185-1 and Surveyor ejecta detector ground support equipment model ML 260-1 Final engineering report

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    Engineering analyses on Surveyor lunar dust particle detector instrumentation, and ground support equipmen

    Clinical problems caused by obesity

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    Over the past few decades the incidence of obesity has doubled worldwide and current estimates classify more than 1.5 billion adults as overweight and at least 500 million of them as clinically obese, with body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m2 and 30 kg/m2, respectively. Obesity prevalence rates are steadily rising in the majority of the modern Western societies, as well as in the developing world. Moreover, alarming trends of weight gain are reported for children and adolescents, undermining the present and future health status of the pediatric population. To highlight the related threat to public health, the World Health Organization has declared obesity a global epidemic, also stressing that it remains an under-recognized problem of the public health agenda

    Assessment of the peripheral microcirculation using computer-assisted venous congestion plethysmography in post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome type I

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    In complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I), edema of the affected limb is a common finding. Therefore, the changes in macro- and microcirculatory parameters were investigated to elucidate the underlying pathophysiology. Twenty-four patients with post-traumatic CRPS-I and 25 gender- and age-matched healthy subjects were examined by means of an advanced computer-assisted venous congestion strain-gauge plethysmograph. The recording of the volume response of the forearm to a stepwise inflation of an occlusion cuff placed at the upper arm enabled the calculation of the arterial blood flow into the arm (Q(a)), the vascular compliance (C), the peripheral venous pressure (P-v), the isovolumetric venous pressure (P-vi; = hydrostatic pressure needed to achieve net fluid filtration) and the capillary filtration capacity (CFC) - an index of microvascular permeability. The study revealed no difference in any of the parameters between the right and left hand of healthy subjects. In CRPS-I patients, however Qs, Pv, Pvi and CFC were significantly (p < 0.01/0.001) elevated in the affected arm (Q(a) 11.2 +/- 7.0 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1), P-v 20.2 +/- 8.1 mm Hg, P-vi 24.7 +/- 4.2 mm Hg, CFC 0.0058 +/- 0.0015 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1) mm Hg-1) compared to the unaffected arm (Q(a) 4.2 +/- 2.4 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1), P-v 10.0 +/- 5.1 mm Hg, P-vi 13.2 +/- 3.7 mm Hg, CFC 0.0038 +/- 0.0005 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1) mm Hg-1) and the values obtained in healthy controls (Q(a) 5.1 +/- 1.3 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1), P-v 10.4 +/- 4.3 mm Hg, P-vi 15.7 +/- 3.3 mm Hg, CFC 0.0048 +/- 0.0012 ml min(-1) 100 ml(-1) mm Hg-1). Whereas the values in the unaffected arm of CRPS-I patients revealed no difference in Q(a), P-v and P-vi but a lower CFC (p < 0.01) compared to those from healthy controls. These results suggest profound changes in both macro- and microvascular perfusion in the affected arm of CRPS-I patients. The high CFC contributes to the edema formation, and combined with the elevated Pvi, they are in agreement with the hypothesis of an inflammatory origin of CRPS. Copyright (C) 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

    Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of methanol extract of Hyssopus angustifolius

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    This study was designed to evaluate antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of Hyssopus angustifolius flower, stem and leaf methanol extracts by employing various in vitro assays. The leaf extract showed the best activity in DPPH (63.2 ± 2.3 μg mL-1) and H2O2  (55.6 ± 2.6 μg mL-1) models compared to the other extracts. However, flower extract exhibited the highest Fe2+ chelating activity (131.4 ± 4.4 μg mL-1). The extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity in linoleic acid peroxidation and reducing power assays, but were not comparable to vitamin C. The stem (23.58 ± 0.7 μg mL-1) and leaf (26.21 ± 1 μg mL-1) extracts showed highest level of antihemolytic activity than the flower extract

    Automated online preconcentration system for the determination of trace amounts of lead using Pb-selective resin and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

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    An automated sequential-injection online preconcentration system was developed for the determination of lead by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The preconcentration of lead was performed with a minicolumn containing a lead-selective resin, Analig Pb-01, which was installed between a selection and a switching valve. In an acidic condition ( pH 1), lead could be adsorbed on the resin. The concentrated lead was afterward eluted with 25 mu L of 0.06 M nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) solution ( pH 9) and was subsequently transported into the nebulizer of ICP-AES for quantification. The selectivity of the resin toward lead was examined using a solution containing a mixture of 61 elements. When a sample volume of 5 mL was used, the quantitative collection of lead ( &#62;= 97%) was achieved, along with an enrichment factor of 19, a sampling frequency of 12 samples hr(-1), a detection limit of 70 pg mL(-1), and a lowest quantification limit of 100 pg mL(-1). The linear dynamic range was 0.1 to 5 ng mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation (n = 9) was 0.5% at a 5 ng mL(-1) Pb level. The detection limit of 30 pg mL(-1) and lowest quantification limit of 50 pg mL(-1) could be achieved when 10 mL of sample volume was used. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated by determining lead in the standard reference material of river water (SLRS-4), and its applicability to the determination of lead in environmental river water samples was demonstrated.</p

    A study of Mg adsorption on Si(001) surface from first principles

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    First-principles calculations using density functional theory based on norm-conserving pseudopotentials have been performed to investigate the Mg adsorption on the Si(001) surface for 1/4, 1/2 and 1 monolayer coverages. For both 1/4 and 1/2 ML coverages it has been found that the most favorable site for the Mg adsorption is the cave site between two dimer rows consistent with the recent experiments. For the 1 ML coverage we have found that the most preferable configuration is when both Mg atoms on 2x1 reconstruction occupy the two shallow sites. We have found that the minimum energy configurations for 1/4 ML coverage is a 2x2 reconstruction while for the 1/2 and 1 ML coverages they are 2x1.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    ING116070: a study of the pharmacokinetics and antiviral activity of dolutegravir in cerebrospinal fluid in HIV-1-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naive subjects.

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    BackgroundDolutegravir (DTG), a once-daily, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase inhibitor, was evaluated for distribution and antiviral activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).MethodsING116070 is an ongoing, single-arm, open-label, multicenter study in antiretroviral therapy-naive, HIV-1-infected adults. Subjects received DTG (50 mg) plus abacavir/lamivudine (600/300 mg) once daily. The CSF and plasma (total and unbound) DTG concentrations were measured at weeks 2 and 16. The HIV-1 RNA levels were measured in CSF at baseline and weeks 2 and 16 and in plasma at baseline and weeks 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16.ResultsThirteen white men enrolled in the study; 2 withdrew prematurely, 1 because of a non-drug-related serious adverse event (pharyngitis) and 1 because of lack of treatment efficacy. The median DTG concentrations in CSF were 18 ng/mL (range, 4-23 ng/mL) at week 2 and 13 ng/mL (4-18 ng/mL) at week 16. Ratios of DTG CSF to total plasma concentration were similar to the unbound fraction of DTG in plasma. Median changes from baseline in CSF (n = 11) and plasma (n = 12) HIV-1 RNA were -3.42 and -3.04 log10 copies/mL, respectively. Nine of 11 subjects (82%) had plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA levels &lt;50 copies/mL and 10 of 11 (91%) had CSF HIV-1 RNA levels &lt;2 copies/mL at week 16.ConclusionsThe DTG concentrations in CSF were similar to unbound plasma concentrations and exceeded the in vitro 50% inhibitory concentration for wild-type HIV (0.2 ng/mL), suggesting that DTG achieves therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system. The HIV-1 RNA reductions were similar in CSF and plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01499199

    Evaluation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) extracts on human T lymphoblastoid cell line

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    This paper reports on an investigation of the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of khat extract using a human T lymphoblastoid cell line (CEM). Exponentially growing CEM cells were cultured for 12 h in the presence of khat extract (0-2000 μg ml-1). Statistically significant, dose-dependent increases in; CEM cell death at dose (> 400 μg ml-1), in DNA damage at dose (>200 μg ml-1) and in micronuclei frequency, at dose (>200 μg ml-1) were observed. The genetic damage effects of khat extract on human cell line observed in this study could serve as a major contribution towards the understanding and creating of awareness of an increased risk of cancer amongst long-term khat consumers

    Cardiac troponin I as compared to troponin T for the detection of myocardial damage in horses

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    Background: Different cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assays give different results. Only 1 manufacturer has marketed troponin T (cTnT) assays. Therefore, cTnT often is preferred for detection of myocardial infarction in human patients. Studies of cTnT in horses are limited. Objectives: To compare a cTnI and a high-sensitive cTnT assay (hs-cTnT) in horses. Animals: Cardiac troponin I and cTnT were determined in 35 healthy horses (group 1), 23 horses suspected to have primary myocardial damage (group 2a), and 41 horses with secondary myocardial damage caused by structural heart disease (group 2b). Methods: All cTnI samples were analyzed at laboratory A (limit of detection [LOD]: 0.03 ng/mL), whereas cTnT samples were analyzed at 2 laboratories with the same hs-cTnT assay (laboratory B, LOD: 10.0 pg/mL; laboratory C, LOD: 4.0 pg/mL). Results: The median cTnI concentration in group 2a (0.90 ng/mL; range, 0.03–58.27 ng/mL) was significantly higher (P < .001) than in group 1 (0.03 ng/mL; range, 0.03–0.09 ng/mL) or group 2b (0.05 ng/mL; range, 0.03–30.92 ng/mL), and the optimal cut-off for detection of primary myocardial damage was 0.095 ng/mL (sensitivity: 90.5%, specificity: 100%). Using an LOD of 10.0 pg/mL for all cTnT samples, a cut-off value of 10.5 pg/mL was found, but sensitivity was low (42.9%). When only samples analyzed at laboratory C (n = 58) were included, a cut-off of 6.6 pg/mL was found (sensitivity: 81%, specificity: 100%). Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Despite large quantitative differences, cTnI and cTnT are both useful for detection of myocardial damage in horses

    First principles calculation of structural and magnetic properties for Fe monolayers and bilayers on W(110)

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    Structure optimizations were performed for 1 and 2 monolayers (ML) of Fe on a 5 ML W(110) substrate employing the all-electron full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method. The magnetic moments were also obtained for the converged and optimized structures. We find significant contractions (\sim 10 %) for both the Fe-W and the neighboring Fe-Fe interlayer spacings compared to the corresponding bulk W-W and Fe-Fe interlayer spacings. Compared to the Fe bcc bulk moment of 2.2 μB\mu_B, the magnetic moment for the surface layer of Fe is enhanced (i) by 15% to 2.54 μB\mu_B for 1 ML Fe/5 ML W(110), and (ii) by 29% to 2.84 μB\mu_B for 2 ML Fe/5 ML W(110). The inner Fe layer for 2 ML Fe/5 ML W(110) has a bulk-like moment of 2.3 μB\mu_B. These results agree well with previous experimental data