269,456 research outputs found

    Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nasal diamorphine for analgesia in children and teenagers with clinical fractures.

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    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of nasal diamorphine spray with intramuscular morphine for analgesia in children and teenagers with acute pain due to a clinical fracture, and to describe the safety profile of the spray. DESIGN: Multicentre randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Emergency departments in eight UK hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged between 3 and 16 years presenting with a clinical fracture of an upper or lower limb. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients' reported pain using the Wong Baker face pain scale, ratings of reaction to treatment of the patients and acceptability of treatment by staff and parents, and adverse events. RESULTS: 404 eligible patients completed the trial (204 patients given nasal diamorphine spray and 200 given intramuscular morphine). Onset of pain relief was faster in the spray group than in the intramuscular group, with lower pain scores in the spray group at 5, 10, and 20 minutes after treatment but no difference between the groups after 30 minutes. 80% of patients given the spray showed no obvious discomfort compared with 9% given intramuscular morphine (difference 71%, 95% confidence interval 65% to 78%). Treatment administration was judged acceptable by staff and parents, respectively, for 98% (199 of 203) and 97% (186 of 192) of patients in the spray group compared with 32% (64 of 199) and 72% (142 of 197) in the intramuscular group. No serious adverse events occurred in the spray group, and the frequencies of all adverse events were similar in both groups (spray 24.1% v intramuscular morphine 18.5%; difference 5.6%, -2.3% to 13.6%). CONCLUSION: Nasal diamorphine spray should be the preferred method of pain relief in children and teenagers presenting to emergency departments in acute pain with clinical fractures. The diamorphine spray should be used in place of intramuscular morphine


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    There are universal aspects in language. Phonology, as the most universal languagecomponent, has many universal aspects including nasal assimilation. Nasal assimilation isthe systematic appearance of certain nasals instead of other nasals based on the context in monomorphemic or polymorphemic words. The nasal /n/ occurs successively with alveolarconsonants, the nasal /m/ with labials, the nasal /ɳ/ with velars, and the nasal /ɲ/ withpalatals. Nasal assimilation mostly occurs regressively. Regressively, nasal assimilationtends to occur in monomorphemic and polymorphemic words. In progressive assimilation, ittends to occur in a specific phrase structure. This phenomenon can happen acrosslanguages

    Nasal histamine responses in nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome

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    Background: Nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilic syndrome (NARES) is persistent, without atopy, but with ≥25% nasal eosinophilia. Hypereosinophilia seems to contribute to nasal mucosa dysfunction. Objectives: This analytical case-control study aimed at assessing the presence and severity of nonspecific nasal hyperactivity and at finding out whether eosinophilia may be correlated with the respiratory and mucociliary clearance functions. Materials: The symptom score was assessed in 38 patients and 15 controls whose nasal smear was also tested for eosinophils and mucociliary transport (MCT). Nonspecific nasal provocation tests (NSNPT) with histamine were also carried out, and total nasal resistance (TNR) was determined. Results: The symptom score of NARES after NSNPT were not significantly different from the control group, and there was poor or no correlation among the single symptoms and the differences studied for every nasal reactivity class. This correlation improved when using the composite symptom score. The most severe eosinophilia was observed in high reactivity groups, and it was correlated with an increase in TNR. MCT worsened as eosinophilia and nasal reactivity increased. Unlike controls, a significant correlation was observed between the increase in MCT and TNR. Conclusions: In NARES, nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity is the result of epithelial damage produced by eosinophilic inflammation, which causes MCT slow down, an increase in TNR, and nasal reactivity classes, with possible impact on classification, prognosis, and treatment control

    Correlation between Subjective Nasal Patency and Intranasal Airflow Distribution

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    Objectives (1) Analyze the relationship between intranasal airflow distribution and subjective nasal patency in healthy and nasal airway obstruction (NAO) cohorts using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (2) Determine whether intranasal airflow distribution is an important objective measure of airflow sensation that should be considered in future NAO virtual surgery planning. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Academic tertiary medical center and academic dental clinic. Subjects and Methods Three-dimensional models of nasal anatomy were created based on computed tomography scans of 15 patients with NAO and 15 healthy subjects and used to run CFD simulations of nasal airflow and mucosal cooling. Subjective nasal patency was quantified with a visual analog scale (VAS) and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE). Regional distribution of nasal airflow (inferior, middle, and superior) was quantified in coronal cross sections in the narrowest nasal cavity. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between subjective scores and regional airflows. Results Healthy subjects had significantly higher middle airflow than patients with NAO. Subjective nasal patency had no correlation with inferior and superior airflows but a high correlation with middle airflow (|r| = 0.64 and |r| = 0.76 for VAS and NOSE, respectively). Anterior septal deviations tended to shift airflow inferiorly, reducing middle airflow and reducing mucosal cooling in some patients with NAO. Conclusion Reduced middle airflow correlates with the sensation of nasal obstruction, possibly due to a reduction in mucosal cooling in this region. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of intranasal airflow distribution in the sensation of nasal airflow

    Review of the financial and medicolegal implications of nasal fractures seen at St Luke’s Hospital

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    Simple nasal bone fractures are the third most common type of all fractures leading to numerous patient visits at the Accident & Emergency department. Nasal fractures are commonly over-investigated in St Luke’s hospital leading to a substantial financial burden on our health system. In this article we review the frequency of simple nasal fractures as well as the necessity or otherwise of nasal x-ray imaging in addition to the financial and health consequences that result from nasal x-ray imaging. These issues are also discussed from a legal perspective.peer-reviewe

    An evaluation of the use of nasal bones imaging in primary care in Malta

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    Introduction: Fractures of the nasal bones are one of the commonest injuries sustained in facial trauma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of nasal bone x-rays in the public primary care department in Malta and whether this has an impact on subsequent follow-up of patients presenting with nasal trauma. --Method: This was a retrospective cross-sectional observational study. Data of all nasal x-rays requested in primary health care during the year 2018 was gathered. Data input and analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel®2016. -- Results: A total of 212 nasal bone x-rays were taken in primary care over the one-year study period, amounting to 65% of the total number of nasal x-rays taken in the public health sector in Malta. The majority of the patients were males. The most frequent age group was 21 to 30 years. The highest number of nasal bone x-ray requests (37.7%) was for unspecified trauma, followed by trauma secondary to a fall (25.9%), and trauma secondary to fights or assaults (16.5%). The majority(67%) of x-rays were reported as normal. Thirty point two per cent of all patients who had a nasal bone x-ray taken were referred to the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department on the same day and 28.3% had Ear, Nose & Throat (END Outpatients follow-up. -- Conclusion: A substantial number of nasal bone x-rays are performed in the primary health care department in Malta on a yearly basis. Only a slight majority of those referred to ENT had an abnormal x-ray report, in keeping with data from previous studies highlighting the limitations of nasal x-rays in planning further management.peer-reviewe

    Physical and geometric constraints explain the labyrinth-like shape of the nasal cavity

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    The nasal cavity is a vital component of the respiratory system that heats and humidifies inhaled air in all vertebrates. Despite this common function, the shapes of nasal cavities vary widely across animals. To understand this variability, we here connect nasal geometry to its function by theoretically studying the airflow and the associated scalar exchange that describes heating and humidification. We find that optimal geometries, which have minimal resistance for a given exchange efficiency, have a constant gap width between their side walls, but their overall shape is restricted only by the geometry of the head. Our theory explains the geometric variations of natural nasal cavities quantitatively and we hypothesize that the trade-off between high exchange efficiency and low resistance to airflow is the main driving force shaping the nasal cavity. Our model further explains why humans, whose nasal cavities evolved to be smaller than expected for their size, become obligate oral breathers in aerobically challenging situations.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Nasal manifestations in granulomatosis with polyangiitis: a case report and review of the literature

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    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides of medium and small arteries, characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract with coexist- ing glomerulonephritis. We report a case of GPA in a patient presenting with a six-month history of spontaneous epistaxis, nasal obstruction and frontal headache. Nasal endoscopy showed a large nasal septum perforation and an anterior translucid mass in the right nasal fossa. Findings were confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scan with contrast. The patient underwent func- tional transnasal endoscopic removal of the mass; histological examination showed tissue features suggestive of GPA; dosage of c-ANCA e p-ANCA antibodies confirmed GPA diagnosis. Nasal septum perforation has long been recognized as a feature of GPA, in which granulomatous destruction of nasal cartilage can result in perforation and saddle-nose deformity. Prompt diagno- sis of GPA is important to initiate therapy which may be life-saving and organ sparing

    A study of cell membranes in nasal epithelial cells from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps by means of a fluorescent probe

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    Aim. To assess the state of membranes in nasal epithelial cells obtained from the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) with the help of the fluorescent probe 2-(2ʹ-ОН-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazole. Methods. The state of membrane phospholipid bilayer in suspensions of nasal epithelial cells isolated from ten patients with CRSwNP was evaluated using the fluorescent probe 2-(2ʹ-ОН-phenyl)-5-phenyl-1,3-oxazole that reacts on the physico-chemical properties of its microenvironment. Changes in fluorescence spectra were determined using a Thermo Scientific Lumina fluorescence spectrometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific) 1 hour after the addition of the probe to nasal epithelial cell suspensions. Results. CRSwNP was found to be associated with a higher rate of nasal epithelial cell membrane hydration in the region of phospholipid glycerol moiety, carbonyl groups and aliphatic chains of fatty acids attached to the carbonyl groups. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that CRSwNP is accompanied by the elevated hydration rate of the most polar region, namely polar heads of phospholipids of nasal epithelial cell membranes