60 research outputs found

    Three Sequential Cases: from Symmetry to Asymmetry

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    Three critical cases, involving asymmetric and symmetric cases, in the sequential stages of the n-player repeated auctions are analyzed and compared. These cases might arise in a process of sequential, identical or equivalent auctions, where the auction result may reveal information about the strength or competitiveness of the participants. The behaviours of different players are characterized. Generally a player bids more aggressively when facing a strong player rather than a weak player. However a player favours competing with a weak one rather than a strong one. By applying the concept of Conditional Stochastic Dominance, revenues of players and the seller between the three stages are compared. It is proved that in this sequential process the information structure of the auctions changes and the seller’s revenue increases. Finally, this n-player asymmetric auction model can also be used to compare the revenues between high-bid and open auctions and especially the results first derived by Maskin and Riley (2000) in two-player case are proved to be valid in the n-player case.Asymmetric auction; Revenue comparison

    Risk-Sharing in International Trade

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    Wage disputes from a game theory perspective

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    The microscopic examination of Phytophthora cinnamomi in plant tissues using fluorescent in situ hybridization

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    The microscopic examination of Phytophthora cinnamomi in plant tissues is often difficult as structures such as hyphae, chlamydospores and oospores are frequently indistinguishable from those of other fungi and oomycetes, with histological stains not enabling species differentiation. This lack of staining specificity makes the localization of P. cinnamomi hyphae and reproductive structures within plant tissues difficult, especially in woody tissues. This study demonstrates that with the use of a species-specific fluorescently labelled DNA probe, P. cinnamomi can be specifically detected and visualized directly using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) without damage to plant or pathogen cell integrity or the need for subculturing. This approach provides a new application for FISH with potential use in the detailed study of plant–pathogen interactions in plants

    Metagenomics: DNA sequencing of environmental samples

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    While genomics has classically focused on pure, easy-to-obtain samples, such as microbes that grow readily in culture or large animals and plants, these organisms represent but a fraction of the living or once living organisms of interest. Many species are difficult to study in isolation, because they fail to grow in laboratory culture, depend on other organisms for critical processes, or have become extinct. DNA sequence-based methods circumvent these obstacles, as DNA can be directly isolated from live or dead cells in a variety of contexts, and have led to the emergence of a new field referred to as metagenomics
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