209 research outputs found

    Viscous heating effects in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: triggering of secondary flows

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    Viscous heating can play an important role in the dynamics of fluids with strongly temperature-dependent viscosities because of the coupling between the energy and momentum equations. The heat generated by viscous friction produces a local temperature increase near the tube walls with a consequent decrease of the viscosity and a strong stratification in the viscosity profile. The problem of viscous heating in fluids was investigated and reviewed by Costa & Macedonio (2003) because of its important implications in the study of magma flows. Because of the strong coupling between viscosity and temperature, the temperature rise due to the viscous heating may trigger instabilities in the velocity field, which cannot be predicted by a simple isothermal Newtonian model. When viscous heating produces a pronounced peak in the temperature profile near the walls, a triggering of instabilities and a transition to secondary flows can occur because of the stratification in the viscosity profile. In this paper we focus on the thermal and mechanical effects caused by viscous heating. We will present the linear stability equations and we will show, as in certain regimes, these effects can trigger and sustain a particular class of secondary rotational flows which appear organised in coherent structures similar to roller vortices. This phenomenon can play a very important role in the dynamics of magma flows in conduits and lava flows in channels and, to our knowledge, it is the first time that it has been investigated by a direct numerical simulation.Comment: 18 pages manuscript, 10 figures, to be published in Journal of Fluid Mechanics (2005

    Spatial Logics for Bigraphs

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    Bigraphs are emerging as an interesting model for concurrent calculi, like CCS, pi-calculus, and Petri nets. Bigraphs are built orthogonally on two structures: a hierarchical place graph for locations and a link (hyper-)graph for connections. With the aim of describing bigraphical structures, we introduce a general framework for logics whose terms represent arrows in monoidal categories. We then instantiate the framework to bigraphical structures and obtain a logic that is a natural composition of a place graph logic and a link graph logic. We explore the concepts of separation and sharing in these logics and we prove that they generalise some known spatial logics for trees, graphs and tree contexts

    Viscous heating in fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity: implications for magma flows

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    International audienceViscous heating plays an important role in the dynamics of fluids with strongly temperature-dependent viscosity because of the coupling between the energy and momentum equations. The heat generated by viscous friction produces a local temperature increase near the tube walls with a consequent decrease of the viscosity which may dramatically change the temperature and velocity profiles. These processes are mainly controlled by the Peclét number, the Nahme number, the flow rate and the thermal boundary conditions. The problem of viscous heating in fluids was investigated in the past for its practical interest in the polymer industry, and was invoked to explain some rheological behaviours of silicate melts, but was not completely applied to study magma flows. In this paper we focus on the thermal and mechanical effects caused by viscous heating in tubes of finite lengths. We find that in magma flows at high Nahme number and typical flow rates, viscous heating is responsible for the evolution from Poiseuille flow, with a uniform temperature distribution at the inlet, to a plug flow with a hotter layer near the walls. When the temperature gradients induced by viscous heating are very pronounced, local instabilities may occur and the triggering of secondary flows is possible. For completeness, this paper also describes magma flow in infinitely long tubes both at steady state and in transient phase

    BiLog: Spatial Logics for Bigraphs

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    Bigraphs are emerging as a (meta-)model for concurrent calculi, like CCS, ambients, π\pi-calculus, and Petri nets. They are built orthogonally on two structures: a hierarchical place graph for locations and a link (hyper-)graph for connections. Aiming at describing bigraphical structures, we introduce a general framework, BiLog, whose formulae describe arrows in monoidal categories. We then instantiate the framework to bigraphical structures and we obtain a logic that is a natural composition of a place graph logic and a link graph logic. We explore the concepts of separation and sharing in these logics and we prove that they generalise well known spatial logics for trees, graphs and tree contexts. As an application, we show how XML data with links and web services can be modelled by bigraphs and described by BiLog. The framework can be extended by introducing dynamics in the model and a standard temporal modality in the logic. However, in some cases, temporal modalities can be already expressed in the static framework. To testify this, we show how to encode a minimal spatial logic for CCS in an instance of BiLog

    Static BiLog: a Unifying Language for Spatial Structures

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    Aiming at a unified view of the logics describing spatial structures, we introduce a general framework, BiLog, whose formulae characterise monoidal categories. As a first instance of the framework we consider bigraphs, which are emerging as a an interesting (meta-)model for spatial structures and distributed calculi. Since bigraphs are built orthogonally on two structures, a hierarchical place graph for locations and a link (hyper-)graph for connections, we obtain a logic that is a natural composition of other two instances of BiLog: a Place Graph Logic and a Link Graph Logic. We prove that these instances generalise the spatial logics for trees, for graphs and for tree contexts. We also explore the concepts of separation and sharing in these logics. We note that both the operator * of Separation Logic and the operator | of spatial logics do not completely separate the underlying structures. These two different forms of separation can be naturally derived as instances of BiLog by using the complete separation induced by the tensor product of monoidal categories along with some form of sharing

    FPLUME-1.0: An integrated volcanic plume model accounting for ash aggregation

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    Eruption source parameters (ESP) characterizing volcanic eruption plumes are crucial inputs for atmospheric tephra dispersal models, used for hazard assessment and risk mitigation.We present FPLUME-1.0, a steady-state 1-D (one-dimensional) cross-section-averaged eruption column model based on the buoyant plume theory (BPT). The model accounts for plume bending by wind, entrainment of ambient moisture, effects of water phase changes, particle fallout and re-entrainment, a new parameterization for the air entrainment coefficients and a model for wet aggregation of ash particles in the presence of liquid water or ice. In the occurrence of wet aggregation, the model predicts an effective grain size distribution depleted in fines with respect to that erupted at the vent. Given a wind profile, the model can be used to determine the column height from the eruption mass flow rate or vice versa. The ultimate goal is to improve ash cloud dispersal forecasts by better constraining the ESP (column height, eruption rate and vertical distribution of mass) and the effective particle grain size distribution resulting from eventual wet aggregation within the plume. As test cases we apply the model to the eruptive phase-B of the 4 April 1982 El Chichón volcano eruption (México) and the 6 May 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption phase (Iceland). The modular structure of the code facilitates the implementation in the future code versions of more quantitative ash aggregation parameterization as further observations and experiment data will be available for better constraining ash aggregation processes

    È VIVO: Virtual eruptions at Vesuvius; A multimedia tool to illustrate numerical modeling to a general public

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    Dissemination of scientific results to the general public has become increasingly important in our society. When science deals with natural hazards, public outreach is even more important: on the one hand, it contributes to hazard perception and it is a necessary step toward preparedness and risk mitigation; on the other hand, it contributes to establish a positive link of mutual confidence between scientific community and the population living at risk. The existence of such a link plays a relevant role in hazard communication, which in turn is essential to mitigate the risk. In this work, we present a tool that we have developed to illustrate our scientific results on pyroclastic flow propagation at Vesuvius. This tool, a CD-ROM that we developed joining scientific data with appropriate knowledge in communication sciences is meant to be a first prototype that will be used to test the validity of this approach to public outreach. The multimedia guide contains figures, images of real volcanoes and computer animations obtained through numerical modeling of pyroclastic density currents. Explanatory text, kept as short and simple as possible, illustrates both the process and the methodology applied to study this very dangerous natural phenomenon. In this first version, the CD-ROM will be distributed among selected categories of end-users together with a short questionnaire that we have drawn to test its readability. Future releases will include feedback from the users, further advancement of scientific results as well as a higher degree of interactivity

    An automatic procedure to forecast tephra fallout

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    Tephra fallout constitutes a serious threat to communities around active volcanoes. Reliable short-term forecasts represent a valuable aid for scientists and civil authorities to mitigate the effects of fallout on the surrounding areas during an episode of crisis. We present a platform-independent automatic procedure with the aim to daily forecast transport and deposition of volcanic particles. The procedure builds on a series of programs and interfaces that automate the data flow and the execution and subsequent postprocess of fallout models. Firstly, the procedure downloads regional meteorological forecasts for the area and time interval of interest, filters and converts data from its native format, and runs the CALMET diagnostic model to obtain the wind field and other micro-meteorological variables on a finer local-scale 3-D grid defined by the user. Secondly, it assesses the distribution of mass along the eruptive column, commonly by means of the radial averaged buoyant plume equations depending on the prognostic wind field and on the conditions at the vent (granulometry, mass flow rate, etc). All these data serve as input for the fallout models. The initial version of the procedure includes only two Eulerian models, HAZMAP and FALL3D, the latter available as serial and parallel implementations. However, the procedure is designed to incorporate easily other models in a near future with minor modifications on the model source code. The last step is to postprocess the outcomes of models to obtain maps written in standard file formats. These maps contain plots of relevant quantities such as predicted ground load, expected deposit thickness and, for the case of or 3-D models, concentration on air or flight safety concentration thresholds
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