83 research outputs found

    CO preferential oxidation in a novel Au@ZrO₂ flow-through catalytic membrane reactor with high stability and efficiency

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    CO preferential oxidation (CO-PROX) achieves much interest as a strategy to remove trace CO in reformed gases for hydrogen utilization. Herein, we reported a novel Au@ZrO₂ catalytic membrane reactor by embedding gold nano-particles in ZrO₂ hollow fiber membrane for CO-PROX. The flow-through catalytic membrane exhibited high catalytic activity and oxygen selectivity, which gave a turnover frequency of 4.73 s⁻¹ at 60 °C, 2–3 times higher than conventional catalyst pellets. CO conversion of >95% was achieved over the catalytic membrane, which maintained great operational stability during 500-h operation even CO₂ and H₂O were added in the feed stream. The excellent catalytic performance of the flow-through catalytic membrane makes gold catalyst possible for practical application in the removal of CO from hydrogen

    Transmission of sodium chloride in PDMS membrane during Pervaporation based on polymer relaxation

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    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite membrane is used for treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing NaCl and solvent. In this study, the influence of feed concentrations of NaCl and isobutanol, process temperature and membrane microstructures on salt rejection are evaluated. Microstructures of PDMS membrane before and after separation are characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Positron annihilation life-time spectroscopy (PALS). The PV results show that NaCl will not spontaneously enter PDMS membrane without isobutanol. However, while NaCl feed concentration is 13 wt%, salt rejection of PDMS membrane drops from 100% to 99.09% with increasing feed concentration of isobutanol (up to 7 wt%). On the contrary, a higher temperature increases salt rejection of PDMS membrane and NaCl permeation through PDMS membrane is not through a vapor permeate process. Due to the relaxation of PDMS polymer chain, when PDMS cross-linking ratio is 0.1, the salt rejection increases from 99.87% to 100% with its thickness increasing from 10 ?m to 17.5 ?m. While the cross-linking ratio rises to 0.2, the salt rejection is 100% with the PDMS layer thickness of 10 ?m. The relationship between relaxation of polymer chains and transport of NaCl in PDMS membrane is an excellent guidance and will be beneficial for the treatment of saline organic wastewater

    CARE: A Large Scale CT Image Dataset and Clinical Applicable Benchmark Model for Rectal Cancer Segmentation

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    Rectal cancer segmentation of CT image plays a crucial role in timely clinical diagnosis, radiotherapy treatment, and follow-up. Although current segmentation methods have shown promise in delineating cancerous tissues, they still encounter challenges in achieving high segmentation precision. These obstacles arise from the intricate anatomical structures of the rectum and the difficulties in performing differential diagnosis of rectal cancer. Additionally, a major obstacle is the lack of a large-scale, finely annotated CT image dataset for rectal cancer segmentation. To address these issues, this work introduces a novel large scale rectal cancer CT image dataset CARE with pixel-level annotations for both normal and cancerous rectum, which serves as a valuable resource for algorithm research and clinical application development. Moreover, we propose a novel medical cancer lesion segmentation benchmark model named U-SAM. The model is specifically designed to tackle the challenges posed by the intricate anatomical structures of abdominal organs by incorporating prompt information. U-SAM contains three key components: promptable information (e.g., points) to aid in target area localization, a convolution module for capturing low-level lesion details, and skip-connections to preserve and recover spatial information during the encoding-decoding process. To evaluate the effectiveness of U-SAM, we systematically compare its performance with several popular segmentation methods on the CARE dataset. The generalization of the model is further verified on the WORD dataset. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed U-SAM outperforms state-of-the-art methods on these two datasets. These experiments can serve as the baseline for future research and clinical application development.Comment: 8 page

    Dual function filtration and catalytic breakdown of organic pollutants in wastewater using ozonation with titania and alumina membranes

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    Water recycling via treatment from industrial and/or municipal waste sources is one of the key strategies for resolving water shortages worldwide. Polymer membranes are effective at improving the water quality essential for recycling, but depend on regular cleaning and replacement. Pure ceramic membranes can reduce the cleaning need and last significantly longer in the same applications while possessing the possibility of operating in more aggressive environments not suitable for polymers. In the current work, filtration using a tubular ceramic membrane (�-Al2O3 or TiO2) was combined with ozonation to remove organic compounds present in a secondary effluent to enhance key quality features of the water (colour and total organic carbon, TOC) for its potential reuse. ‘Bare’ commercial �-Al2O3 filters (pore size ∼0.58 �m) were tested as a microfiltration membrane and compared with the more advanced catalytically active TiO2 layer that was formed by the sol–gel method. The presence of anatase with a 4 nm pore size at the membrane surface was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and N2 adsorption. Filtration of the effluent over a 2 h period led to a reduction in flux to 45% and 60% of the initial values for the �-alumina and TiO2 membrane, respectively. However, a brief dose (2 min) of ozone at the start of the run resulted in reductions to only 70% of the initial flux for both membranes. It is likely that the oxide’s functional property facilitated the formation of hydroxyl (OH•) or other radicals on the membrane surface from ozone decomposition which targeted the breakdown of organic foulants thus inhibiting their deposition. Interestingly, the porous structure therefore acted in a synergistic, dual function mode to physically separate the particulates while also catalytically breaking down organic matter. The system also greatly improved the efficiency of membrane filtration for the reduction of colour, A254 (organics absorption at the wavelength of 254 nm) and TOC. The best performance came from combined ozonation (2 min ozonation time with an estimated applied ozone dose of 8 mg L−1) with the TiO2 membrane, which was able to reduce colour by 88%, A254 by 75% and TOC by 43%. It is clearly evident that a synergistic effect occurs with the process combination of ozonation and ceramic membrane filtration demonstrating the practical benefit of combining ceramic membrane filtration with conventional water ozonation

    Ion–Conducting Ceramic Membrane Reactors for the Conversion of Chemicals

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    Ion–conducting ceramic membranes, such as mixed oxygen ionic and electronic conducting (MIEC) membranes and mixed proton–electron conducting (MPEC) membranes, have the potential for absolute selectivity for specific gases at high temperatures. By utilizing these membranes in membrane reactors, it is possible to combine reaction and separation processes into one unit, leading to a reduction in by–product formation and enabling the use of thermal effects to achieve efficient and sustainable chemical production. As a result, membrane reactors show great promise in the production of various chemicals and fuels. This paper provides an overview of recent developments in dense ceramic catalytic membrane reactors and their potential for chemical production. This review covers different types of membrane reactors and their principles, advantages, disadvantages, and key issues. The paper also discusses the configuration and design of catalytic membrane reactors. Finally, the paper offers insights into the challenges of scaling up membrane reactors from experimental stages to practical applications

    Highly efficient preparation of Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ–SrCo0.9Nb0.1O3-δ dual-phase four-channel hollow fiber membrane via one-step thermal processing approach

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    Fabricating dual-phase hollow-fiber membranes via a one-step thermal processing (OSTP) approach is challenging, because of complex sintering kinetics and the subsequent impacts on membrane morphology, phase stability, and permeation properties. In this study, we have demonstrated that Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ-SrCo0.9Nb0.1O3-δ (SDC-SCN) four-channel hollow fiber membrane can be manufactured via a single high-temperature sintering process, by using metal oxides and carbonates directly as membrane materials (sources of metal ions). It has been found that use of a low ramping rate reduces grain sizes, increases grain and forming cobalt oxide nanoparticles, a key step to promoting surface exchange process followed by enhancing oxygen permeation. While the grain boundary interface region can be limited to approximately 20–30 nm. At 1173 K oxygen permeation of the SDC-SCN four-channel hollow fiber membrane was measured at approximately 1.2 mL cm−2·min−1 using helium as the sweep gas. Meanwhile, the dual-phase membrane shows a good tolerance to carbon dioxide, with the oxygen permeation flux fully recovered after long-term exposure to carbon dioxide (more than 100 h). This will enable further application of the OSTP approach for preparing dual-phase multi-channel hollow fiber membranes for applications of oxyfuel combustion, catalytic membrane reactors and carbon dioxide capture

    In-situ secondary growth of nanocube-based Prussian-blue film as an ultrasensitive biosensor

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    A regular nanostructure has been widely confirmed to result ina marked improvement in material performance in biosensing applications. In the present study, a regular nanostructured Prussian blue (PB) film with two heterogeneous crystal layers was synthesized in-situ using a secondary growth method. A PB seed layer was first controlled to form uniform cube-like crystal nuclei through an ultrasonic reaction with a single reactant. Then, well-defined 100 nm PB nanocubes were further crystallized on this seed layer using a self-assembly approach. In order to accelerate the electron transfer rate during the enzyme reaction for glucose detection, the graphene was used as the main cross-linker to immobilize glucose oxidase on the PB film. The as-prepared biosensor exhibited high electrocatalysis and electron conductivity for the detection of trace glucose with a sensitivity of 141.5 µA mM-1 cm-2, as well as excellent anti-interference ability in the presence of ascorbic acid and uric acid under a low operation potential of -0.05 V

    Membranes with Intrinsic Micro-Porosity: Structure, Solubility, and Applications

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    Microporous polymer membranes have been widely studied because of their excellent separation performance. Among them, polymers of intrinsic micro-porosity (PIMs) have been regarded as a potential next-generation membrane material for their ultra-permeable characteristics and their solution-processing ability. Therefore, many reviews have been reported on gas separation and monomers for the preparation of PIMs. This review aims to provide an overview of the structure-solubility property. Different structures such as non-network and network macromolecular structure made of different monomers have been reviewed. Then their solubility with different structures and different separation applications such as nanofiltration, pervaporation, and gas/vapor separation are summarized. Lastly, we also provide our perspectives on the challenges and future directions of the microporous polymer membrane for the structure-property relationship, anti-physical aging, and more