6,166 research outputs found

    A theory of viscoplasticity accounting for internal damage

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    A constitutive theory for use in structural and durability analyses of high temperature isotropic alloys is presented. Constitutive equations based upon a potential function are determined from conditions of stability and physical considerations. The theory is self-consistent; terms are not added in an ad hoc manner. It extends a proven viscoplastic model by introducing the Kachanov-Rabotnov concept of net stress. Material degradation and inelastic deformation are unified; they evolve simultaneously and interactively. Both isotropic hardening and material degradation evolve with dissipated work which is the sum of inelastic work and internal work. Internal work is a continuum measure of the stored free energy resulting from inelastic deformation

    Asymptotic integration algorithms for nonhomogeneous, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations

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    New methods for integrating systems of stiff, nonlinear, first order, ordinary differential equations are developed by casting the differential equations into integral form. Nonlinear recursive relations are obtained that allow the solution to a system of equations at time t plus delta t to be obtained in terms of the solution at time t in explicit and implicit forms. Examples of accuracy obtained with the new technique are given by considering systems of nonlinear, first order equations which arise in the study of unified models of viscoplastic behaviors, the spread of the AIDS virus, and predator-prey populations. In general, the new implicit algorithm is unconditionally stable, and has a Jacobian of smaller dimension than that which is acquired by current implicit methods, such as the Euler backward difference algorithm; yet, it gives superior accuracy. The asymptotic explicit and implicit algorithms are suitable for solutions that are of the growing and decaying exponential kinds, respectively, whilst the implicit Euler-Maclaurin algorithm is superior when the solution oscillates, i.e., when there are regions in which both growing and decaying exponential solutions exist

    A viscoplastic model with application to LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt

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    A viscoplastic model for class M (metal-like behavior) materials is presented. One novel feature is its use of internal variables to change the stress exponent of creep (where n is approximately = 5) to that of natural creep (where n = 3), in accordance with experimental observations. Another feature is the introduction of a coupling in the evolution equations of the kinematic and isotropic internal variables, making thermal recovery of the kinematic variable implicit. These features enable the viscoplastic model to reduce to that of steady-state creep in closed form. In addition, the hardening parameters associated with the two internal state variables (one scalar-valued, the other tensor-valued) are considered to be functions of state, instead of being taken as constant-valued. This feature enables each internal variable to represent a much wider spectrum of internal states for the material. The model is applied to a LiF-22 percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt, which is being considered as a thermal energy storage material for space-based solar dynamic power systems

    Viscoplasticity: A thermodynamic formulation

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    A thermodynamic foundation using the concept of internal state variables is given for a general theory of viscoplasticity, as it applies to initially isotropic materials. Three fundamental internal state variables are admitted. They are: a tensor valued back stress for kinematic effects, and the scalar valued drag and yield strengths for isotropic effects. All three are considered to phenomenologically evolve according to competitive processes between strain hardening, strain induced dynamic recovery, and time induced static recovery. Within this phenomenological framework, a thermodynamically admissible set of evolution equations is put forth. This theory allows each of the three fundamental internal variables to be composed as a sum of independently evolving constituents

    Steady-state and transient Zener parameters in viscoplasticity: Drag strength versus yield strength

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    A hypothesis is put forth which enables the viscoplastician to formulate a theory of viscoplasticity that reduces, in closed form, to the classical theory of creep. This hypothesis is applied to a variety of drag and yield strength models. Because of two theoretical restrictions that are a consequence of this hypothesis, three different yield strength models and one drag strength model are shown to be theoretically admissible. One of these yield strength models is selected as being the most appropriate representation for isotropic hardening

    The order of curvature operators on loop groups

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    For loop groups (free and based), we compute the exact order of the curvature operator of the Levi-Civita connection depending on a Sobolev space parameter. This extends results of Freed and Maeda-Rosenberg-Torres.Comment: to appear in Letters in Mathematical Physic

    Critical behavior of long straight rigid rods on two-dimensional lattices: Theory and Monte Carlo simulations

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    The critical behavior of long straight rigid rods of length kk (kk-mers) on square and triangular lattices at intermediate density has been studied. A nematic phase, characterized by a big domain of parallel kk-mers, was found. This ordered phase is separated from the isotropic state by a continuous transition occurring at a intermediate density θc\theta_c. Two analytical techniques were combined with Monte Carlo simulations to predict the dependence of θc\theta_c on kk, being θc(k)k1\theta_c(k) \propto k^{-1}. The first involves simple geometrical arguments, while the second is based on entropy considerations. Our analysis allowed us also to determine the minimum value of kk (kmin=7k_{min}=7), which allows the formation of a nematic phase on a triangular lattice.Comment: 23 pages, 5 figures, to appear in The Journal of Chemical Physic

    Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

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    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt

    A latent class analysis of parental bipolar disorder: examining associations with offspring psychopathology

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    Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heterogeneous, and course variations are associated with patient outcomes. This diagnostic complexity challenges identification of patients in greatest need of intervention. Additionally, course variations have implications for offspring risk. First, latent class analysis (LCA) categorized parents with BD based on salient illness characteristics: BD type, onset age, polarity of index episode, pole of majority of episodes, rapid cycling, psychosis, anxiety comorbidity, and substance dependence. Fit indices favored three parental classes with some substantively meaningful patterns. Two classes, labeled “Earlier-Onset Bipolar-I” (EO-I) and “Earlier-Onset Bipolar-II” (EO-II), comprised parents who had a mean onset age in mid-adolescence, with EO-I primarily BD-I parents and EO-II entirely BD-II parents. The third class, labeled “Later-Onset BD” (LO) had an average onset age in adulthood. Classes also varied on probability of anxiety comorbidity, substance dependence, psychosis, rapid cycling, and pole of majority of episodes. Second, we examined rates of disorders in offspring (ages 4–33, Mage=13.46) based on parental latent class membership. Differences emerged for offspring anxiety disorders only such that offspring of EO-I and EO-II parents had higher rates, compared to offspring of LO parents, particularly for daughters. Findings may enhance understanding of BD and its nosologyThis study was funded by two Brain & Behavior Research Foundation (formerly NARSAD) Independent Investigator Awards (PI: Nierenberg), a Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award (PI: Henin) generously supported in part by the SHINE Initiative, and an MGH Claflin Award (PI: Henin). We thank David A. Langer, Ph.D., Thomas M. Olino, Ph.D., and Meredith Lotz Wallace, Ph.D. for their consultation. (Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; Brain & Behavior Research Foundation Young Investigator Award; SHINE Initiative; MGH Claflin Award)Accepted manuscrip

    Global Spinors and Orientable Five-Branes

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    Fermion fields on an M-theory five-brane carry a representation of the double cover of the structure group of the normal bundle. It is shown that, on an arbitrary oriented Lorentzian six-manifold, there is always an Sp(2) twist that allows such spinors to be defined globally. The vanishing of the arising potential obstructions does not depend on spin structure in the bulk, nor does the six-manifold need to be spin or spin-C. Lifting the tangent bundle to such a generalised spin bundle requires picking a generalised spin structure in terms of certain elements in the integral and modulo-two cohomology of the five-brane world-volume in degrees four and five, respectively.Comment: 18 pages, LaTeX; v2: version to appear in JHE
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