103 research outputs found

    Prev Chronic Dis

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    Improving population health is not simple. Many instruments are available for changing behavior and consequent outcomes. However, the following basic principles should guide development of any incentive arrangement: 1) identify the desired outcome, 2) identify the behavior change that will lead to this outcome, 3) determine the potential effectiveness of the incentive in achieving the behavior change, 4) link a financial incentive directly to this outcome or behavior, 5) identify the possible adverse effects of the incentive, and 6) evaluate and report changes in the behavior or outcome in response to the incentive. A wide range of financial and nonfinancial incentives is available to encourage efficient behaviors and discourage costly and unproductive ones. Evidence for the beneficial effects of incentive programs has been slow to emerge, partly because such evidence must show how behaviors have changed because of the incentive. Nevertheless, the potential for incentive programs in health care seems large, and research should support their design and assess their effect

    Pathophysiology of Type 1 Diabetes and Gut Microbiota Role

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    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease driven by T-cells against the insulin-producing islet beta-cells, resulting in a marked loss of beta-cell mass and function. Although a genetic predisposal increases susceptibility, the role of epigenetic and environmental factors seems to be much more significant. A dysbiotic gut microbial profile has been associated with T1D patients. Moreover, new evidence propose that perturbation in gut microbiota may influence the T1D onset and progression. One of the prominent features in clinically silent phase before the onset of T1D is the presence of a microbiota characterized by low numbers of commensals butyrate producers, thus negatively influencing the gut permeability. The loss of gut permeability leads to the translocation of microbes and microbial metabolites and could lead to the activation of immune cells. Moreover, microbiota-based therapies to slow down disease progression or reverse T1D have shown promising results. Starting from this evidence, the correction of dysbiosis in early life of genetically susceptible individuals could help in promoting immune tolerance and thus in reducing the autoantibodies production. This review summarizes the associations between gut microbiota and T1D for future therapeutic perspectives and other exciting areas of research

    Fecal and mucosal microbiota profiling in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases

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    An altered gut microbiota profile has been widely documented in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). The intestinal microbial community has been more frequently investigated in the stools than at the level of the mucosa, while most of the studies have been performed in adults. We aimed to define the gut microbiota profile either by assessing fecal and colonic mucosa samples (inflamed or not) from pediatric IBD patients

    a metaproteomic pipeline to identify newborn mouse gut phylotypes

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    Abstract In order to characterize newborn mouse gut microbiota phylotypes in very early-life stages, an original metaproteomic pipeline, based on LC–MS 2 -spectra and Mascot driven NCBI non-redundant repository database interrogation was developed. An original computational analysis assisted in the generation of a taxonomic gut architecture from protein hits to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and related functional categories. Regardless of the mouse's genetic background, a prevalence of Firmicutes (Lactobacillaceae) and Proteobacteria (Enterobacteriaceae) was observed among the entire Eubacteria taxonomic node. However, a higher abundance of Firmicutes was retrieved for Balb/c gut microbiota compared to Rag2 ko mice, the latter was mainly characterized by a Proteobacteria enriched microbiota. The metaproteomic-obtained OTUs were supported, for the identification (ID) of the cultivable bacteria fraction, corroborated by axenic culture-based MALDI-TOF MS IDs. Particularly, functional analysis of Rag2 ko mice gut microbiota proteins revealed the presence of abundant glutathione, riboflavin metabolism and pentose phosphate pathway components, possibly related to genetic background. The metaproteomic pipeline herein presented may represent a useful tool to investigate the highly debated onset of the human gut microbiota in the first days of life, when the bacterial composition, despite its very low diversity (complexity), is still very far from an exhaustive description and other complex microbial consortia. Biological significance The manuscript deals with a "frontier" topic regarding the study of the gut microbiota and the application of a metaproteomic pipeline to unveil the complexity of this fascinating ecosystem at the very early stages of life. Indeed during these phases, its diversity is very low but the bacterial content is highly "instable", and the relative balance between mucosal and fecal bacteria starts its dynamics of "fight" to get homeostasis. However, in the neonatal period, especially immediately after birth, a comprehensive description of this microbial eco-organ is still lacking, while it should be mandatory to highlight its first mechanisms of homeostasis and perturbation, while it co-develops with and within the host species. In order to unravel its low but almost unknown microbial community multiplicity, the newborn mouse gut, characterized by a "very" low complexity, was herein selected as model to design a LC–MS 2 -based shotgun metaproteomic approach, potentially suitable to study onset and shaping in human newborns. A microbiological semi-automatic computational analysis was performed to infer gut phylotypes; such as proof of evidence, related OTUs were compared to axenic-culture-based MALDI-TOF MS IDs showing consistency at family and phyla levels for the bacterial cultivable fraction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics

    Gut microbiota markers in obese adolescent and adult patients: Age-dependent differential patterns

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    Obesity levels, especially in children, have dramatically increased over the last few decades. Recently, several studies highlighted the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathophysiology of obesity. We investigated the composition of gut microbiota in obese adolescents and adults compared to age-matched normal weight (NW) volunteers in order to assemble age- and obesity-related microbiota profiles. The composition of gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA-based metagenomics. Ecological representations of microbial communities were computed, and univariate, multivariate, and correlation analyses performed on bacterial profiles. The prediction of metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA gene surveys was carried out. Ecological analyses revealed a dissimilarity among the subgroups, and resultant microbiota profiles differed between obese adolescents and adults. Using statistical analyses, we assigned, as microbial markers, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Actinomyces to the microbiota of obese adolescents, and Parabacteroides, Rikenellaceae, Bacteroides caccae, Barnesiellaceae, and Oscillospira to the microbiota of NW adolescents. The predicted metabolic profiles resulted different in adolescent groups. Particularly, biosynthesis of primary bile acid and steroid acids, metabolism of fructose, mannose, galactose, butanoate, and pentose phosphate and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis were for the majority associated to obese, while biosynthesis and metabolism of glycan, biosynthesis of secondary bile acid, metabolism of steroid hormone and lipoic acid were associated to NW adolescents. Our study revealed unique features of gut microbiota in terms of ecological patterns, microbial composition and metabolism in obese patients. The assignment of novel obesity bacterial markers may open avenues for the development of patient-tailored treatments dependent on age-related microbiota profiles

    The pediatric gut bacteriome and virome in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    IntroductionSince the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in early 2020, it has been apparent that children were partially protected from both infection and the more severe forms of the disease. Many different mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including children’s frequent exposure to other upper respiratory infections and vaccines, and which inflammatory cytokines they are more likely to produce in response to infection. Furthermore, given the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the intestine and its ability to infect enterocytes, combined with the well described immunomodulatory capabilities of the microbiome, another potential contributing factor may be the presence of certain protective microbial members of the gut microbiota (GM).MethodsWe performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and profiled both the bacteriome and virome of the GM of pediatric SARS-CoV-2 patients compared to healthy, age-matched subjects.ResultsWe found that, while pediatric patients do share some pro-inflammatory microbial signatures with adult patients, they also possess a distinct microbial signature of protective bacteria previously found to be negatively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 infectivity and COVID-19 severity. COVID-19 was also associated with higher fecal Cytomegalovirus load, and with shifts in the relative abundances of bacteriophages in the GM. Furthermore, we address how the preventative treatment of COVID-19 patients with antibiotics, a common practice especially in the early days of the pandemic, affected the bacteriome and virome, as well as the abundances of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in these patients. DiscussionTo our knowledge, this is the first study to address the bacteriome, virome, and resistome of pediatric patients in response to COVID-19 and to preventative antibiotics use

    Functional and Taxonomic Traits of the Gut Microbiota in Type 1 Diabetes Children at the Onset: A Metaproteomic Study

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    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune metabolic disorder with onset in pediatric/adolescent age, characterized by insufficient insulin production, due to a progressive destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. Evidence on the correlation between the human gut microbiota (GM) composition and T1D insurgence has been recently reported. In particular, 16S rRNA-based metagenomics has been intensively employed in the last decade in a number of investigations focused on GM representation in relation to a pre-disease state or to a response to clinical treatments. On the other hand, few works have been published using alternative functional omics, which is more suitable to provide a different interpretation of such a relationship. In this work, we pursued a comprehensive metaproteomic investigation on T1D children compared with a group of siblings (SIBL) and a reference control group (CTRL) composed of aged matched healthy subjects, with the aim of finding features in the T1D patients' GM to be related with the onset of the disease. Modulated metaproteins were found either by comparing T1D with CTRL and SIBL or by stratifying T1D by insulin need (IN), as a proxy of beta-cells damage, showing some functional and taxonomic traits of the GM, possibly related to the disease onset at different stages of severity

    Globalization effects on the reports of non-endemic parasitosis in Italy

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    Protozoa and helminths are responsible for several intestinal parasite infections (IPIs). Generally, helminth infections are very unsafe but scarcely reported in high-income countries, while protozoa and helminth co-infections are usually reported in children living in inadequate hygienic-sanitary conditions and in rural areas. However, the impact of growing globalization, intense travelling, international adoptions and high levels of immigrants and refugees has significantly incremented the incidence of orofecal parasitosis in non-endemic areas. Although most IPs clear without treatment when population, even children, emigrate from endemic to different geographical areas, some IPIs such as strongyloidiasis may persist for decades as subclinical infections or as low-grade disease with nonspecific clinical manifestations, unless to reappear under impairment conditions. Herein we report an unusual case of Giardia lamblia and Trichuris spp. chronic asymptomatic co-infection in a healthy adopted Romanian child, living in a Central Italy rural area, and a hidden case of Strongyloides stercoralis in an adopted Burundian child, resident in South Italy, long misdiagnosed as a recurrent undefined dermatitis. Our report suggests the need to review primary care practitioner guidelines and children’s hospital procedures for appropriate IPIs screening and follow-up, hence providing new screening and prevention strategies, in agreement with international guidelines
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