75 research outputs found

    The role of stereotactic body radiation therapy in oligometastatic colorectal cancer

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    Rationale: Regorafenib is the new standard third-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the reported 1-year overall survival rate does not exceed 25%. Patient concerns: A 55-year-old man affected by mCRC, treated with regorafenib combined with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), showing a durable response. Interventions: After 6 months of regorafenib, a PET/CT scan revealed a focal uptake in a solid lung nodule which was treated with SBRT, whereas continuing regorafenib administration. Fourteen months later, the patient had further progression in a parasternal lymph node, but treatment with regorafenib was continued. The regorafenib-associated side effects, such us the hand-foot syndrome, were favorable managed by reducing the dose from 160 to 120 mg/day. Outcomes: Patient-reported outcome was characterized by a progression-free survival of approximately 3 years. Lessons: in presence of oligometastatic progression, a local SBRT while retaining the same systemic therapy may be a better multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, disease progression is no longer an absolute contraindication for continuing the regorafenib treatment

    Statin use is not associated with an increased risk of acute pancreatitis-A meta-analysis of observational studies

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    Background: Statins are perceived as potential etiological factors for acute pancreatitis (AP), but recent evidence suggests the opposite. Our aim was to evaluate the association between statin use and risk of AP in observational studies. Methods: Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for cohort (C) and case-control (CC) studies evaluating statins as intervention and AP as outcome. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results: Thirteen studies (seven CC, six C) with 34,899 AP patients and 5,377,894 controls were included. Prevalence of statin use was 9.8% among AP patients and 25% among controls. Pooled adjusted OR was 1.00 (95% CI = 0.63 to 1.59) with considerable heterogeneity (I-2 = 98%). CC studies were associated with increased AP risk (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.47), unlike C studies (OR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.37 to 1.31). No association with increased risk was found for studies from Western countries (OR = 0.90; 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.56), unlike for studies conducted in Asia (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.10 to 1.75). Conclusion: Statin use is not associated with increased risk of AP. Increased risk was limited to CC studies, which are more prone to bias, while C studies showed no global effect. Further research is needed to clarify whether statin type, dosage, treatment duration or AP etiology might account for this difference.Peer reviewe

    Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency in Diabetic Patients: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Treatment

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    Pancreas is a doubled-entity organ, with both an exocrine and an endocrine component, reciprocally interacting in a composed system whose function is relevant for digestion, absorption, and homeostasis of nutrients. Thus, it is not surprising that disorders of the exocrine pancreas also affect the endocrine system and vice versa. It is well-known that patients with chronic pancreatitis develop a peculiar form of diabetes (type III), caused by destruction and fibrotic injury of islet cells. However, less is known on the influence of diabetes on pancreatic exocrine function. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) has been reported to be common in diabetics, with a prevalence widely ranging, in different studies, in both type I (25‚Äď74%) and type II (28‚Äď54%) diabetes. A long disease duration, high insulin requirement, and poor glycemic control seem to be risk factors for PEI occurrence. The impact of pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy on glycemic, insulin, and incretins profiles has not been fully elucidated. The present paper is aimed at reviewing published studies investigating the prevalence of PEI in diabetic patients and factors associated with its occurrence

    Clinical usefulness of scoring systems to predict severe acute pancreatitis : A systematic review and meta-analysis with pre and post-test probability assessment

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    Scoring systems for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) prediction should be used in conjunction with pre-test probability to establish post-test probability of SAP, but data of this kind are lacking.To investigate the predictive value of commonly employed scoring systems and their usefulness in modifying the pre-test probability of SAP.Following PRISMA statement and MOOSE checklists after PROSPERO registration, PubMed was searched from inception until September 2022. Retrospective, prospective, cross-sectional studies or clinical trials on patients with acute pancreatitis defined as Revised Atlanta Criteria, reporting rate of SAP and using at least one score among Bedside Index for Severity in Acute Pancreatitis (BISAP), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Examination (APACHE)-II, RANSON, and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) with their sensitivity and specificity were included. Random effects model meta-analyses were performed. Pre-test probability and likelihood ratio (LR) were combined to estimate post-test probability on Fagan nomograms. Pooled severity rate was used as pre-test probability of SAP and pooled sensitivity and specificity to calculate LR and generate post-test probability. A priori hypotheses for heterogeneity were developed and sensitivity analyses planned.43 studies yielding 14,116 acute pancreatitis patients were included: 42 with BISAP, 30 with APACHE-II, 27 with Ranson, 8 with SIRS. Pooled pre-test probability of SAP ranged 16.6%-25.3%. The post-test probability of SAP with positive/negative score was 47%/6% for BISAP, 43%/5% for APACHE-II, 48%/5% for Ranson, 40%/12% for SIRS. In 18 studies comparing BISAP, APACHE-II, and Ranson in 6740 patients with pooled pre-test probability of SAP of 18.7%, post-test probability when scores were positive was 48% for BISAP, 46% for APACHE-II, 50% for Ranson. When scores were negative, post-test probability dropped to 7% for BISAP, 6% for Ranson, 5% for APACHE-II. Quality, design, and country of origin of the studies did not explain the observed high heterogeneity.The most commonly used scoring systems to predict SAP perform poorly and do not aid in decision-making

    A scan of all coding region variants of the human genome, identifies 13q12.2-rs9579139 and 15q24.1-rs2277598 as novel risk loci for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

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    Coding sequence variants comprise a small fraction of the germline genetic variability of the human genome. However, they often cause deleterious change in protein function and are therefore associated with pathogenic phenotypes. To identify novel pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) risk loci, we carried out a complete scan of all common missense and synonymous SNPs and analysed them in a case control study comprising four different populations, for a total of 14,538 PDAC cases and 190,657 controls. We observed a statistically significant association between 13q12.2-rs9581957-T and PDAC risk (P=2.46x10 -9), that is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with a deleterious missense variant (rs9579139) of the URAD gene. Recent findings suggest that this gene is active in peroxisomes. Considering that peroxisomes have a key role as molecular scavengers, especially in eliminating reactive oxygen species, a malfunctioning URAD protein might expose the cell to a higher load of potentially DNA damaging molecules and therefore increase PDAC risk. The association was observed in individuals of European and Asian ethnicity. We also observed the association of the missense variant 15q24.1-rs2277598-T, that belongs to BBS4 gene, with increased PDAC risk (P=1.53x10 -6). rs2277598 is associated with body mass index and is in LD with diabetes susceptibility loci. In conclusion, we identified two missense variants associated with the risk of developing PDAC independently from the ethnicity highlighting the importance of conducting reanalysis of GWAS studies in light of functional data

    Chronic use of statins and risk of post-ERCP acute pancreatitis (STARK) : Study protocol for an international multicenter prospective cohort study

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    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common complication after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Statins have been traditionally associated to an increased risk of AP, however, recent evidence suggests that statins may have a protective role against this disease. Aims: Our primary aim is to investigate whether the use of statins has a protective effect against post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). Secondary outcomes are: to evaluate the effect of other drugs on the incidence of PEP; to ascertain the relationship between the use of statins and the severity of PEP; and to evaluate the effect of other risk and protective factors on the incidence of PEP. Methods: STARK is an international multicenter prospective cohort study. Centers from Spain, Italy, Croatia, Finland and Sweden joined this study. The total sample size will include about 1016 patients, which was based on assuming a 5% incidence of PEP among non-statin (NSt) users, a 1-3 ratio of statin (St) and NSt consumers respectively, a 70% decrease in PEP among St consumers, an alpha-error of 0.05 and beta-error of 0.20. All patients aged >18 years scheduled for ERCP will be offered to enter the study. Discussion: STARK study will ascertain whether statins, a safe, widely used and inexpensive drug, can modify the incidence of PEP. (C) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Peer reviewe

    Common germline variants within the CDKN2A/2B region affect risk of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

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    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are heterogeneous neoplasms which represent only 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms by incidence, but 10% by prevalence. Genetic risk factors could have an important role in the disease aetiology, however only a small number of case control studies have been performed yet. To further our knowledge, we genotyped 13 SNPs belonging to the pleiotropic CDKN2A/B gene region in 320 PNET cases and 4436 controls, the largest study on the disease so far. We observed a statistically significant association between the homozygotes for the minor allele of the rs2518719 SNP and an increased risk of developing PNET (ORhom = 2.08, 95% CI 1.05-4.11, p = 0.035). This SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with another polymorphic variant associated with increased risk of several cancer types. In silico analysis suggested that the SNP could alter the sequence recognized by the Neuron-Restrictive Silencer Factor (NRSF), whose deregulation has been associated with the development of several tumors. The mechanistic link between the allele and the disease has not been completely clarified yet but the epidemiologic evidences that link the DNA region to increased cancer risk are convincing. In conclusion, our results suggest rs2518719 as a pleiotropic CDKN2A variant associated with the risk of developing PNETs

    Common genetic variants associated with pancreatic adenocarcinoma may also modify risk of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (vol 39, pg 360, 2018)

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    Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNEN) account for less than 5% of all pancreatic neoplasms and genetic association studies on susceptibility to the disease are limited. We sought to identify possible overlap of genetic susceptibility loci between pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and pNEN; therefore, PDAC susceptibility variants (n=23) from Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were genotyped in 369 pNEN cases and 3,277 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium to evaluate the odds associated with pNEN risk, disease onset and tumor characteristics. Main effect analyses showed four PDAC susceptibility variants ‚Äď rs9854771, rs1561927, rs9543325 and rs10919791 to be associated with pNEN risk. Subsequently, only associations with rs9543325, rs10919791 and rs1561927 were noteworthy with false positive report probability (FPRP) tests. Stratified analyses considering age at onset (50 year threshold), showed rs2736098, rs16986825 and rs9854771 to be associated with risk of developing pNEN at a younger age. Stratified analyses also showed some SNPs to be associated with different degrees of tumor grade, metastatic potential and functionality. Our results identify known GWAS PDAC susceptibility loci, which may also be involved in sporadic pNEN etiology and suggest that some genetic mechanisms governing pathogenesis of these two entities may be similar, with few of these loci being more influential in younger cases or tumor subtypes
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