123,698 research outputs found

    Efficacy of the Biomaterials 3 wt%-nanostrontium-hydroxyapatite-enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cement (nanoSr-CPC) and nanoSr-CPC-incorporated Simvastatin-loaded Poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) Microspheres in Osteogenesis Improvement

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    Aims The purpose of this multi-phase explorative in vivo animal/surgical and in vitro multi-test experimental study was to (1) create a 3 wt%-nanostrontium hydroxyapatite-enhanced calcium phosphate cement (Sr-HA/CPC) for increasing bone formation and (2) creating a simvastatin-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (SIM-loaded PLGA) microspheres plus CPC composite (SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC). The third goal was the extensive assessment of multiple in vitro and in vivo characteristics of the above experimental explorative products in vitro and in vivo (animal and surgical studies). Methods and results pertaining to Sr-HA/CPC Physical and chemical properties of the prepared Sr-HA/CPC were evaluated. MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase activities, and radiological and histological examinations of Sr-HA/CPC, CPC and negative control were compared. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that crystallinity of the prepared cement increased by increasing the powder-to-liquid ratio. Incorporation of Sr-HA into CPC increased MTT assay (biocompatibility) and ALP activity (P \u3c 0.05). Histomorphometry showed greater bone formation after 4 weeks, after implantation of Sr-HA/CPC in 10 rats compared to implantations of CPC or empty defects in the same rats (n = 30, ANOVA P \u3c 0.05). Methods and results pertaining to SIM-loaded PLGA microspheres + nanostrontium-CPC composite After SEM assessment, the produced composite of microspheres and enhanced CPC were implanted for 8 weeks in 10 rabbits, along with positive and negative controls, enhanced CPC, and enhanced CPC plus SIM (n = 50). In the control group, only a small amount of bone had been regenerated (localized at the boundary of the defect); whereas, other groups showed new bone formation within and around the materials. A significant difference was found in the osteogenesis induced by the groups sham control (16.96 ± 1.01), bone materials (32.28 ± 4.03), nanostrontium-CPC (24.84 ± 2.6), nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin (40.12 ± 3.29), and SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC (44.8 ± 6.45) (ANOVA P \u3c 0.001). All the pairwise comparisons were significant (Tukey P \u3c 0.01), except that of nanostrontium-CPC-simvastatin and SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC. This confirmed the efficacy of the SIM-loaded PLGA + nanostrontium-CPC composite, and its superiority over all materials except SIM-containing nanostrontium-CPC

    Human exercise-induced circulating progenitor cell mobilization is nitric oxide-dependent and is blunted in South Asian men

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    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website. Copyright @ 2010 American Heart Foundation.Objective— Circulating progenitor cells (CPC) have emerged as potential mediators of vascular repair. In experimental models, CPC mobilization is critically dependent on nitric oxide (NO). South Asian ethnicity is associated with reduced CPC. We assessed CPC mobilization in response to exercise in Asian men and examined the role of NO in CPC mobilization per se. Methods and Results— In 15 healthy, white European men and 15 matched South Asian men, CPC mobilization was assessed during moderate-intensity exercise. Brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilatation was used to assess NO bioavailability. To determine the role of NO in CPC mobilization, identical exercise studies were performed during intravenous separate infusions of saline, the NO synthase inhibitor l-NMMA, and norepinephrine.  Flow-mediated vasodilatation (5.8%±0.4% vs 7.9%±0.5%; P=0.002) and CPC mobilization (CD34+/KDR+ 53.2% vs 85.4%; P=0.001; CD133+/CD34+/KDR+ 48.4% vs 73.9%; P=0.05; and CD34+/CD45− 49.3% vs 78.4; P=0.006) was blunted in the South Asian group. CPC mobilization correlated with flow-mediated vasodilatation and l-NMMA significantly reduced exercise-induced CPC mobilization (CD34+/KDR+ −3.3% vs 68.4%; CD133+/CD34+/KDR+ 0.7% vs 71.4%; and CD34+/CD45− −30.5% vs 77.8%; all P<0.001). Conclusion— In humans, NO is critical for CPC mobilization in response to exercise. Reduced NO bioavailability may contribute to imbalance between vascular damage and repair mechanisms in South Asian men.British Heart Foundatio

    Inter-rater reliability of post-arrest cerebral performance category (CPC) scores.

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    PURPOSE: Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scores are often an outcome measure for post-arrest neurologic function, collected worldwide to compare performance, evaluate therapies, and formulate recommendations. At most institutions, no formal training is offered in their determination, potentially leading to misclassification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 171 patients at 2 hospitals between 5/10/2005 and 8/31/2012 with two CPC scores at hospital discharge recorded independently - in an in-house quality improvement database and as part of a national registry. Scores were abstracted retrospectively from the same electronic medical record by two separate non-clinical researchers. These scores were compared to assess inter-rater reliability and stratified based on whether the score was concordant or discordant among reviewers to determine factors related to discordance. RESULTS: Thirty-nine CPC scores (22.8%) were discordant (kappa: 0.66), indicating substantial agreement. When dichotomized into favorable neurologic outcome (CPC 1-2)/ unfavorable neurologic outcome (CPC 3-5), 20 (11.7%) scores were discordant (kappa: 0.70), also indicating substantial agreement. Patients discharged home (as opposed to nursing/other care facility) and patients with suspected cardiac etiology of arrest were statistically more likely to have concordant scores. For the quality improvement database, patients with discordant scores had a statistically higher median CPC score than those with concordant scores. The registry had statistically lower median CPC score (CPC 1) than the quality improvement database (CPC 2); p\u3c0.01 for statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: CPC scores have substantial inter-rater reliability, which is reduced in patients who have worse outcomes, have a non-cardiac etiology of arrest, and are discharged to a location other than home

    Kinesins relocalize the chromosomal passenger complex to the midzone for spindle disassembly.

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    Mitotic spindle disassembly after chromosome separation is as important as spindle assembly, yet the molecular mechanisms for spindle disassembly are unclear. In this study, we investigated how the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), which contains the Aurora B kinase Ipl1, swiftly concentrates at the spindle midzone in late anaphase, and we researched the role of this dramatic relocalization during spindle disassembly. We showed that the kinesins Kip1 and Kip3 are essential for CPC relocalization. In cells lacking Kip1 and Kip3, spindle disassembly is severely delayed until after contraction of the cytokinetic ring. Purified Kip1 and Kip3 interact directly with the CPC and recruit it to microtubules in vitro, and single-molecule experiments showed that the CPC diffuses dynamically on microtubules but that diffusion stops when the CPC encounters a Kip1 molecule. We propose that Kip1 and Kip3 trap the CPC at the spindle midzone in late anaphase to ensure timely spindle disassembly

    Discriminant analysis under the common principal components model

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    For two or more populations of which the covariance matrices have a common set of eigenvectors, but different sets of eigenvalues, the common principal components (CPC) model is appropriate. Pepler et al. (2015) proposed a regularised CPC covariance matrix estimator and showed that this estimator outperforms the unbiased and pooled estimators in situations where the CPC model is applicable. This paper extends their work to the context of discriminant analysis for two groups, by plugging the regularised CPC estimator into the ordinary quadratic discriminant function. Monte Carlo simulation results show that CPC discriminant analysis offers significant improvements in misclassification error rates in certain situations, and at worst performs similar to ordinary quadratic and linear discriminant analysis. Based on these results, CPC discriminant analysis is recommended for situations where the sample size is small compared to the number of variables, in particular for cases where there is uncertainty about the population covariance matrix structures

    The inner centromere is a biomolecular condensate scaffolded by the chromosomal passenger complex.

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    The inner centromere is a region on every mitotic chromosome that enables specific biochemical reactions that underlie properties, such as the maintenance of cohesion, the regulation of kinetochores and the assembly of specialized chromatin, that can resist microtubule pulling forces. The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is abundantly localized to the inner centromeres and it is unclear whether it is involved in non-kinase activities that contribute to the generation of these unique chromatin properties. We find that the borealin subunit of the CPC drives phase separation of the CPC in vitro at concentrations that are below those found on the inner centromere. We also provide strong evidence that the CPC exists in a phase-separated state at the inner centromere. CPC phase separation is required for its inner-centromere localization and function during mitosis. We suggest that the CPC combines phase separation, kinase and histone code-reading activities to enable the formation of a chromatin body with unique biochemical activities at the inner centromere

    Continuation-Passing C: compiling threads to events through continuations

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    In this paper, we introduce Continuation Passing C (CPC), a programming language for concurrent systems in which native and cooperative threads are unified and presented to the programmer as a single abstraction. The CPC compiler uses a compilation technique, based on the CPS transform, that yields efficient code and an extremely lightweight representation for contexts. We provide a proof of the correctness of our compilation scheme. We show in particular that lambda-lifting, a common compilation technique for functional languages, is also correct in an imperative language like C, under some conditions enforced by the CPC compiler. The current CPC compiler is mature enough to write substantial programs such as Hekate, a highly concurrent BitTorrent seeder. Our benchmark results show that CPC is as efficient, while using significantly less space, as the most efficient thread libraries available.Comment: Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation (2012). arXiv admin note: substantial text overlap with arXiv:1202.324

    The ubiquity of conservative translations

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    We study the notion of conservative translation between logics introduced by Feitosa and D'Ottaviano. We show that classical propositional logic (CPC) is universal in the sense that every finitary consequence relation over a countable set of formulas can be conservatively translated into CPC. The translation is computable if the consequence relation is decidable. More generally, we show that one can take instead of CPC a broad class of logics (extensions of a certain fragment of full Lambek calculus FL) including most nonclassical logics studied in the literature, hence in a sense, (almost) any two reasonable deductive systems can be conservatively translated into each other. We also provide some counterexamples, in particular the paraconsistent logic LP is not universal.Comment: 15 pages; to appear in Review of Symbolic Logi

    Phosphorylation of Sli15 by Ipl1 is important for proper CPC localization and chromosome stability in <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>

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    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a key regulator of eukaryotic cell division, consisting of the protein kinase Aurora B/Ipl1 in association with its activator (INCENP/Sli15) and two additional proteins (Survivin/Bir1 and Borealin/Nbl1). Here we have identified multiple sites of CPC autophosphorylation on yeast Sli15 that are located within its central microtubule-binding domain and examined the functional significance of their phosphorylation by Ipl1 through mutation of these sites, either to non-phosphorylatable alanine (sli15-20A) or to acidic residues to mimic constitutive phosphorylation (sli15-20D). Both mutant sli15 alleles confer chromosome instability, but this is mediated neither by changes in the capacity of Sli15 to activate Ipl1 kinase nor by decreased efficiency of chromosome biorientation, a key process in cell division that requires CPC function. Instead, we find that mimicking constitutive phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 phosphorylation sites causes delocalization of the CPC in metaphase, whereas blocking phosphorylation of Sli15 on the Ipl1 sites drives excessive localization of Sli15 to the mitotic spindle in pre-anaphase cells. Consistent with these results, direct interaction of Sli15 with microtubules in vitro is greatly reduced either following phosphorylation by Ipl1 or when constitutive phosphorylation at the Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation sites is mimicked by aspartate or glutamate substitutions. Furthermore, we find that mimicking Ipl1 phosphorylation of Sli15 interferes with the 'tension checkpoint'--the CPC-dependent mechanism through which cells activate the spindle assembly checkpoint to delay anaphase in the absence of tension on kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Ipl1-dependent phosphorylation of Sli15 therefore inhibits its association with microtubules both in vivo and in vitro and may negatively regulate the tension checkpoint mechanism