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Pneumonia in children admitted to the national referral hospital in Bhutan: a prospective cohort study

By Sophie Jullien, Dinesh Pradhan, Tashi Tshering, Ragunath Sharma, Kumbu Dema, Selene García García, José L. Ribó Aristizabal, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro and Quique Bassat Orellana


Objectives The study aim was to describe the etiological profile and clinical characteristics of pneumonia among children hospitalized in Thimphu, Bhutan. Methods This prospective study enrolled children aged 2–59 months admitted to the Jigme Dorji Wangchuck National Referral Hospital with World Health Organization (WHO)-defined clinical pneumonia. Demographic and clinico-radiological data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, and chest radiography. Blood samples and nasopharyngeal washing were collected for microbiological analysis including culture and molecular methods. Results From July 2017 to June 2018, 189 children were enrolled, of which 53.4% were infants. Pneumonia-related admissions were less frequent over the winter. Chest radiographies were obtained in 149 children; endpoints included pneumonia in 39 cases (26.2%), other infiltrates in 31 (20.8%), and were normal in 79 children (53.0%). Non-contaminated bacterial growth was detected in 8/152 (5.3%) blood cultures, with only two cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Viral detection in upper respiratory secretions was common, with at least one virus detected in 103/115 (89.6%). The three most-commonly isolated viruses were respiratory syncytial virus (52/115; 45.2%), rhinovirus (42/115; 36.5%), and human parainfluenza virus (19/115; 16.5%). A third of patients with viral infections showed mixed infections. Case fatality rate was 3.2% (6/189). Conclusion Respiratory viral infections predominated among this cohort of WHO-defined clinical pneumonia cases, whereas bacterial aetiologies were uncommon, highlighting the epidemiologic transition that Bhutan seems to have reached

Topics: Pneumònia, Infants, Bhutan, Pneumonia, Children, Bhutan
Publisher: 'Elsevier BV'
Year: 2020
DOI identifier: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.04.017
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