Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

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    Dynamic Changes of the Infralimbic Cortex and Its Regulation of the Prelimbic Cortex in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain

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    The prelimbic cortex (PL) is actively engaged in pain modulation. The infralimbic cortex (IL) has been reported to regulate the PL. However, how this regulation affects pain remains unclear. In the present study, we recorded temporary hyper-activity of PL pyramidal neurons responding to nociceptive stimuli, but a temporary hypo-function of the IL by in vivo electrophysiological recording in rats with peripheral inflammation. Manipulation of the PL or IL had opposite effects on thermal hyperalgesia. Furthermore, the functional connectivity and chemogenetic regulation between the subregions indicated an inhibitory influence of the IL on the PL. Activation of the pathway from the IL to the PL alleviated thermal hyperalgesia, whereas its inhibition exacerbated chronic pain. Overall, our results suggest a new mechanism underlying the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in chronic pain: hypo-function of the IL leads to hyperactivity of the PL, which regulates thermal hyperalgesia, and thus contributes to the chronicity of pain

    Sex differences in prevalence and clinical correlates of suicide attempts in first-episode and drug-naïve patients with anxious depression in a Chinese Han population: A large-scale cross-sectional study

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    Backgrounds: Anxious depression (AD) has been extensively studied. However, fewer studies have examined sex differences in the prevalence of suicide attempts among AD patients. This study aimed to explore sex differences in suicide attempts and risk factors in patients with AD. Methods: 1380 first episode drug-naive patients with AD were recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were measured using a self-administered demographic questionnaire. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAMA), and positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were used to assess patients&#39; clinical symptoms. We also measured the patient&#39;s blood glucose, lipids, and thyroid axis hormone levels. Results: There were no sex differences in the prevalence of suicide attempts in patients with FEDN anxious depression. In addition, binary logistic regression analysis showed that HAMA score, TSH levels, and TPOAb levels significantly predicted suicide attempts in both male and female patients with AD, while HAMD score significantly predicted suicide attempts in female patients with AD only. Conclusions: The severity of anxiety and higher levels of TSH and TPOAb were associated with an increased risk for suicide attempts in both male and female patients with AD, whereas the severity of depression was only associated with suicide attempts in females.</p

    Measurement invariance of the driving inattention scale (ARDES) across 7 countries

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    &nbsp; The Attention-Related Driving Errors Scale (ARDES) is a self-report measure of individual differences in driving inattention. ARDES was originally developed in Spanish (Argentina), and later adapted to other countries and languages. Evidence supporting the reliability and validity of ARDES scores has been obtained in various different countries. However, no study has been conducted to specifically examine the measurement invariance of ARDES measures across countries, thus limiting their comparability. Can different language versions of ARDES provide comparable measures across countries with different traffic regulations and cultural norms? To what extent might cultural differences prevent researchers from making valid inferences based on ARDES measures? Using Alignment Analysis, the present study assessed the approximate invariance of ARDES measures in seven countries: Argentina (n = 603), Australia (n = 378), Brazil (n = 220), China (n = 308). Spain (n = 310), UK (n = 298), and USA (n = 278). The three-factor structure of ARDES scores (differentiating driving errors occurring at Navigation, Manoeuvring and Control levels) was used as the target theoretical model. A fixed alignment analysis was conducted to examine approximate measurement invariance. 12.3 % of the intercepts and 0.8 % of the item-factor loadings were identified as non-invariant, averaging 8.6 % of non-invariance. Despite substantial differences among the countries, sample recruitment or representativeness, study results support resorting to ARDES measures to make comparisons across the country samples. Thus, the range of cultures, laws and collision risk across these 7 countries provides a demanding assessment for a cultural-free inattention while-driving. The alignment analysis results suggest that ARDES measures reach near equivalence among the countries in the study. We hope this study will serve as a basis for future cross-cultural research on driving inattention using ARDES.</p

    Leader trait affective presence and safety behaviors: The role of work engagement

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    Due to the potential influence of motivation on employee safety behaviors and safety outcomes, exploring the antecedents that affect employees&rsquo; motivational states is critical in the workplace safety. Considering the significant role of leaders and their interpersonal emotion-related characteristics, our research introduces the construct of leader trait affective presence and investigates its effects on employee safety behaviors via work engagement. In a multisource study based on 467 dyads of leaders and their employees in a nuclear power plant, we tested and supported hypotheses that leader positive affective presence was positively related to employee work engagement, whereas leader negative affective presence was negatively related to employee work engagement. And work engagement was positively related to safety behaviors. Furthermore, leader affective presence has an indirect effect on employee safety outcomes via work engagement. These findings indicate the theoretical value of leader trait affective presence in shaping employee motivational state and further safety behaviors, as well as practical implications for safety organizations.</p

    Multidimensional stressors and depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescents: A network analysis through simulations

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    Background: Existing research has established associations between various stressors and adolescent mental health, primarily from a variable-level perspective. However, a symptom-level understanding about which stressors and symptoms might play a important role is scarce.Methods: The sample consisted of 15,570 adolescents aged 10 to 19. Participants completed questionnaires which assessed multidimensional stressors, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and demographic information. Network analysis was conducted to explore the relationships between stressors and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Additionally, to identify effective targets for the treatment and prevention of adolescent mental health issues, symptom-specific intervention simulations were performed on the network to investigate changes in symptom values in response to the alleviation and aggravation of specific stressors and symptoms.Results: Findings revealed that academic stressors exhibited stronger associations with anxiety symptoms than other stressors, particularly nervousness. Family relationships were more closely linked to depressive symptoms than other stressors, particularly suicidal ideation. Academic stressors emerged as an effective intervention target, and uncontrollable worry as an important prevention target. With the exception of academic stressors, simulating aggravation interventions on symptoms resulted in more changes in overall symptom activation than alleviation interventions.Limitations: A cross-sectional design did not uncover network changes over time and the sample was non-clinical.Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of addressing academic stressors to alleviate adolescents' depressive and anxiety symptoms and reveals that uncontrollable worry is a key prevention target. The findings are helpful for clinicians and educators to develop effective strategies to protect adolescents' mental health

    Relationship between cognitive function and brain activation in major depressive disorder patients with and without insomnia: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study

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    Background: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently present with sleep disturbances and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive impairment is more severe in MDD patients with insomnia, and the underlying neural mechanisms. Methods: A total of 41 MDD patients with insomnia and 43 MDD patients without insomnia were recruited. We used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess changes in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) concentrations in the brain of patients while performing a verbal fluency task (VFT). Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), cognitive function by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), and severity of depression by the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Results: Compared to MDD patients without insomnia, those with insomnia had lower scores on the RBANS total and immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, and delayed memory subscales, as well as lower oxy-Hb concentrations in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and bilateral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC).Further correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the RBANS total score in all brain regions except left mPFC in MDD patients with insomnia(all p < 0.05). Further multiple linear regression showed that Oxy-Hb concentrations of left DLPFC were independently associated with RBANS total score. Conclusion: Our study suggests that MDD patients with insomnia have more cognitive impairment, which is associated with impaired frontal brain activity. Our findings may provide new insights to understand the underlying neural mechanisms of both disorders MDD patients and provide potential clinical value for developing treatment strategies for insomnia in MDD patients

    Overcoming public resistance to carbon taxes: A cost-efficient solution built on a pre-existing reward-based climate policy

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    A carbon tax is effective at curbing carbon emissions, but it is met with low public support due to its high personal cost. Investigations have been conducted to reform carbon tax design to ease the burden on individuals by providing economic compensation, but the cost for governments is high. We propose a new cost-efficient solution by introducing people to a pre-existing reward-based climate policy to create a sense of economic compensation. Across three experiments, we show that the presence of a pre-existing reward-based climate policy increases participants&#39; support for a carbon tax, especially when the innate connection between the two policies is made salient and people regard the reward as compensation for the tax. In contrast, if people are distracted from sensing this interrelationship, support for the tax does not differ from when it is introduced alone. Applicability of this approach was tested under different conditions where the pressure to reduce carbon emission is either high or low.</p

    Gender difference in association between clinical symptoms and alexithymia in chronic schizophrenia: A large sample study based on Chinese Han population

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    Background: Alexithymia, a prevalent social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia, remains insufficiently studied. Though some studies propose a link between alexithymia and clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, this connection lacks consistent confirmation. Additionally, there is limited research on gender difference in alexithymia among schizophrenia patients. To fill this gap, our study aimed to conduct a large-sample survey of Chinese Han patients with chronic schizophrenia to explore whether there are gender differences between clinical symptoms and alexithymia. Methods: We obtained sociodemographic characteristics of 987 schizophrenia patients, measured their clinical symptoms using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), and assessed their self-reported alexithymia using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20).Results: In patients with chronic schizophrenia, the prevalence of alexithymia did not differ between genders (male: 35.51 % vs. female: 26.91 %, P = 0.018). Correlation and linear regression analyses revealed that PANSS scores and TAS-20 scores were widely correlated in both male and female patients. In particular, multiple linear regression analysis showed that the TAS total score was positively correlated with negative symptoms and cognitive symptoms in male patients, while it was positively correlated with negative symptoms and depressive symptoms in female patients. Conclusion: Our study suggests that the prevalence of alexithymia in patients with chronic schizophrenia does not differ between genders. Negative symptoms are related to the TAS-20 total score in both male and female patients, while cognitive symptoms are only related to the TAS-20 total score in male patients, and depressive symptoms are only related to the TAS-20 total score in female patients.</p

    Sex differences in prevalence and clinical correlates of suicide attempts in first-episode and drug-na&iuml;ve patients with anxious depression in a Chinese Han population: A large-scale cross-sectional study

    No full text
    Backgrounds: Anxious depression (AD) has been extensively studied. However, fewer studies have examined sex differences in the prevalence of suicide attempts among AD patients. This study aimed to explore sex differences in suicide attempts and risk factors in patients with AD. Methods: 1380 first episode drug-naive patients with AD were recruited. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were measured using a self-administered demographic questionnaire. The Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Inventory (HAMA), and positive subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) were used to assess patients' clinical symptoms. We also measured the patient's blood glucose, lipids, and thyroid axis hormone levels. Results: There were no sex differences in the prevalence of suicide attempts in patients with FEDN anxious depression. In addition, binary logistic regression analysis showed that HAMA score, TSH levels, and TPOAb levels significantly predicted suicide attempts in both male and female patients with AD, while HAMD score significantly predicted suicide attempts in female patients with AD only. Conclusions: The severity of anxiety and higher levels of TSH and TPOAb were associated with an increased risk for suicide attempts in both male and female patients with AD, whereas the severity of depression was only associated with suicide attempts in females

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