Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University

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    Hunlardan kalan kültürel miras: Çin kaynaklarında “Batur” unvanı

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    WOS:000984150400001In the Chinese classics, the main sources for elucidating the early periods of Turkic history, important events and people from many different eras were meticulously recorded. The hundreds of years between the Huns and the Qing Dynasty were also recorded with the same attitude. The name Bahadir/Batur, which was proposed as the Turkic equivalent of the name Chanyu Mo-du, was spelled very differently in Chinese sources and continued to be used in different eras. Especially during the Yuan and Qing Dynasty periods, it is clear from the sources that the name was widely used. This study classifies the different spellings of this name/title according to the sources and shows the purpose and form of use of the words from the records.Türk tarihinin erken dönemlerinin aydınlatılması için kullanılan temel kaynaklardan Çin kaynakları, pek çok farklı dönemin önemli olaylarını ve kişilerini özenle kayıt altına almıştır. Hunlar dönemi ile Qing Hanedanı dönemi arasında geçen yüzlerce yıllık zaman dilimi de aynı tutumla kayda geçirilmiştir. Hun Tanrıkut’u Mo-du’ya Türkçe karşılık olarak önerilen Bahadır/Batur adı Çince kaynaklarda çok farklı şekillerde yazılmış ve farklı dönemlerde kullanımı devam etmiştir. Özellikle Yuan Hanedanı ve Qing Hanedanı dönemlerinde yaygın olarak kullanıldığı kaynaklarda görülmektedir. Çalışmada bu adın/unvanın farklı yazılış biçimleri kaynaklara göre tasnif edilmiş ve kayıtlardan örnekler verilerek sözcüğün kullanılış amacı ve biçimi gösterilmiştir

    Green marketing applications in hospitality businesses

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    Industrial activities significantly affect the environment, which makes environmental sensitivity one of the most critical issues in the national and international arenas. As in other areas, the green approaches adopted in the tourism sector aim to reduce the negative environmental impact. The current study discussed the meaning of green marketing practices for hospitality businesses, the green marketing practices adopted by these businesses, and the results. In addition, the study presented a holistic perspective by presenting examples from hospitality businesses and gave general information about the green marketing concept, its scope, the reasons to turn to green marketing, and the benefits of such practices. In the study, which deals with the elements of the green marketing mix in hospitality businesses and touches on the examples of green hotels, green marketing practices were evaluated in the tourism secto

    Counterproductive work behaviors in organizations: A research on the effect of the dark triad

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    WOS:000971258100017This study aims to examine whether there is a significant relationship between the counterproductive work behaviors of organizational employees and the states of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy, which are expressed as the dark triad in the literature, and if there is a significant relationship, to determine in what direction and at what level Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy affect counterproductive work behaviors. In line with this purpose, data were obtained from the employees of a tourism company operating in Antalya province of Turkey by applying the survey method. Internal consistency reliability, composite reliability, convergent validity, and divergent validity tests were conducted for these data. The research hypotheses were tested by estimating the structural equation model with the least squares method. As a consequence of the analyses, it was found that narcissism and psychopathy significantly increased counterproductive work behaviors in employees, while Machiavellianism had no statistically significant effect on counterproductive work behaviors

    University students’ gaming and gambling behaviors, related factors, and the relationship between gaming and gambling

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    PMID: 37115422WOS:000978279200002The purpose of this study was to investigate university students’ gaming and gambling behaviors, the factors that relate to these behaviors, and the connection between gaming and gambling behaviors. The study was designed as survey research, which is one of the quantitative research methods. The sample for the study consists of 232 students who are continuing their education at a state university in Turkey. The data of the research were collected through the Student Information Form, the Game Addiction Scale, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen. While the rate of students with problematic gambling behavior was 9.1% (n = 21), the rate of students with problematic gambling behavior was 14.2% (n = 33). Gaming behavior showed significant differences according to gender, age, the feeling of success, leisure time sufficiency, sleep proficiency, smoking, and alcohol use. Gambling behavior showed significant differences according to gender, family type, family income, the feeling of success, level of happiness, the experience of psychological distress, social relationship satisfaction, smoking, and alcohol use, and the presence of an addicted person in the social environment. Gender, perception of success, leisure proficiency, and alcohol use were variables associated with both gambling and gaming. There was a positive and significant relationship between gaming and gambling behavior (r =.264, p [removed

    A compact W-band low-noise radiometry sensor for a single-pixel passive millimeter-wave imager

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    WOS:000997586100001Recently, studies on the remote detection of dangerous objects on the person have gained importance with increased security problems. Therefore, the use of passive millimeter waves in security systems is increasing because they are harmless to health and can penetrate clothes. In this study, a compact low-noise radiometric sensor (LNRS) that can be used to view hidden objects on the person was constructed. The LNRS can be arrayed thanks to its small size and ease of use, and can be used in imaging applications thanks to the 0.24 K resolution obtained. In addition, a passive millimeter imaging system (PMMWI) was developed to obtain images with the LNRS. The PMMWI system, which is realized in a quasi-optical structure, can be used in many experimental studies thanks to its compact structure

    Poverty and poverty studies in Kyrgyz republic

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    1980’lerde sosyal, kültürel ve ekonomik değişimlerle birlikte ön plana çıkmaya başlayan yoksulluk olgusu ulusal hükümetler, çeşitli uluslararası kuruluşlar (Dünya Bankası, Birleşmiş Milletler vb.) ve bazı sivil toplum kuruluşları tarafından daha detaylı bir şekilde araştırılmaya başlanmıştır. Özellikle Dünya Bankası, yaptığı yoksulluk çalışmaları ve yoksulluğa getirdiği tanımlarla belirleyici bir konuma sahip olmuştur. Dünya Bankası gibi Birleşmiş Milletler Kalkınma Programı (UNDP) da 1990’dan itibaren yaptığı çalışmalar ve yayınladığı raporlarla yoksulluk konusuyla yakından ilgilenmiş ve yoksullukla mücadelede bazı ulusal hükümetlerle işbirliği yaparak yoksulluğun azaltılması için ciddi çabalar sarf etmiştir. 1990’lı yıllarda akademik literatürde daha fazla yer bulmaya başlayan yoksulluk çalışmaları Kırgızistan’da Sovyetler Birliği döneminde mevcut olsa da sistematik olarak bağımsızlık sonrası 1996’lı yıllardan başlayarak yürütülmeye başlanmıştır. Sovyetler Birliği sonrası ülkede meydana gelen sosyal, siyasi, ekonomik ve kültürel değişimlerin bir yansıması olarak Kırgızistan, bağımsızlıktan bu yana yoksulluk olgusunu iyiden iyeye hisseden ülkeler arasında yer almaktadır. Kırgızistan’da yoksulluk analizi yöntemleri genel olarak parasal göstergeler (hanelerin parasal gelirleri ve gideri, asgari geçim, halkın yoksulluk düzeyi vs.), parasal olmayan göstergeler (sağlık ve beslenme, çocuk yoksulluğu ve beslenmesi, eğitim yoksulluğu vs.) dahilinde Kırgız Cumhuriyeti ulusal çok boyutlu yoksulluk endeksi kapsamında (parasal yoksulluk, eğitim, gıda güvenliği, yaşam koşulları, sağlık) değerlendirilmektedir. 2004 yılından bu yana yoksulluğun ölçümünün resmî yöntemi olarak hanelerin tüketim harcamaları esas alınmaktadır. 2021 verilerine göre ülkede kişi başına aylık ortalama gelir 6 647,8 somdur (79,1 ) . Dünya Bankasının 2018 yılındaki uluslararası yoksulluk sınırını günlük 3,2 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Bu sınıflandırma hâliyle Kırgızistan’ın uluslararası yoksulluk sınırı altında yaşadığını göstermektedir. 2021 yılı verilerine göre ülkede 2 244 310 kişi yoksul, 407 118 kişi aşırı yoksul (6,0) kategorisindedir. Ülke geneli yoksulluk oranı %33,3 seviyesindedir. Göçmen işçilerin döviz transferleri hariç tutulduğunda, ülkedeki yoksulluk seviyesinin ortalama %33,3’ten %42,8’e çıkacağı belirtilmektedir. Günlük kilo kalori değeri 2240,2’dir. Bölgeler arası yoksulluk farkı fazla olmakla birlikte ülkenin başkenti Bişkek’te bu oran 35,8’lere kadar yükselmektedir. Son zamanlarda kent yoksulluğu yanı sıra çocuk yoksulluğu da belirgin olarak kendini göstermektedir. Bahsi geçen makalede, yoksulluk kavramı çerçevesinde yapılan çalışma ve araştırmaların genel seyri çizilerek bağımsızlıktan bu yana Kırgızistan’ın geçirmiş olduğu otuz yıllık toplumsal süreçler yoksulluk çalışmaları kapsamında ele alınırken Kırgızistan’daki yoksulluk hâlleri (yoksulluk düzeyi, cinsiyet ve çocuk yoksulluğu, kırsal ve köy yoksulluğu, kilo kalori ve ürün tüketimi vs.) istatiksel verilerin ışığında değerlendirilmektedir. Sonuç olarak bağımsızlık sonrası Kırgızistan’ın içinde bulunduğu yoksulluk sarmalının temelinde yaşadığı toplumsal olaylar, siyasi istikrarsızlık ve ekonomik buhranların etkisinden bahsedilebilir.The concept of poverty has come to the forefront, with the social, cultural, and economic changes that started in the 1980s. Poverty has begun to be studied in more detail by national governments, various international organizations (World Bank, United Nations, etc.), and some non-governmental organizations. In particular, it has a strong position in poverty with the poverty studies carried out by the World Bank and the definitions it has brought to poverty. Like the World Bank, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has been closely interested in the problem of poverty with its studies and reports since 1990. It has made serious efforts to reduce poverty through cooperation with some national governments in the fight against poverty. Although poverty studies, which started to find more place in the academic literature in the 1990s, were available in Kyrgyzstan during the Soviet period, they began to be carried out systematically in 1996, after gaining independence. As a reflection of the social, political, economic, and cultural changes that took place in the country with the collapse of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan is among the countries that have felt the poverty phenomenon quite severely, since becoming independent. Poverty analysis methods in Kyrgyzstan generally include monetary indicators (Monetary income and expenditures of households, subsistence minimum, poverty level of the population, etc.), and non-monetary indicators (health and nutrition, child poverty and nutrition, education poverty, etc.), multidimensional poverty index (monetary poverty, education, food security, living conditions, health). Since 2004, household expenditures (personal consumption level) have been used as the official method of measuring poverty. According to 2021 data, the average monthly income per capita in the country is 6 647.8 soms (79.1).TheWorldBanksadjustmentoftheinternationalpovertyline(minimumconsumptionlevel)in2018wascalculatedas79.1). The World Bank's adjustment of the international poverty line (minimum consumption level) in 2018 was calculated as 3.2 per day. With this classification, it is seen that Kyrgyzstan lives under the international poverty line. According to the data for 2021, 2 244 310 individuals in the country are poor, and 407 118 individuals are extremely poor (6.0). The nationwide poverty rate is 33.3. Excluding the money transfers of migrant workers, it is stated that the poverty level in the country will increase from 33.3% to 42.8% on average. The daily calorie value is 2240.2. Although the poverty gap between the regions is high, this rate rises to 35.8 in Bishkek, the capital of the country. In addition to urban poverty, child poverty has also increased recently. The article discusses the general course of the studies and researches carried out within the framework of the concept of poverty and the 30-year social processes that Kyrgyzstan has gone through since independence within the framework of poverty studies, while the poverty levels in Kyrgyzstan (poverty level, gender and child poverty, rural and village poverty, calorie and product consumption) are evaluated in the light of statistical data. As a result, it can be mentioned that the social events, political instability and economic depressions that Kyrgyzstan experienced on the basis of the poverty spiral after independence

    Photoantimicrobial and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activities of seleno-Chevrel phases

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    WOS:001018670500001Chevrel phases are triclinic crystal structures consisting of a refractory metals and chalcogenides, which present unique properties in many applications. Herein, structural, mechanical, dynamical and electronic properties of Fe2Mo6Se8 and Cu2Mo6Se8 seleno-Chevrel phases were theoretically and experimentally investigated. The theoretical studies revealed the mechanical and dynamical stabilities of these phases that lead to the experimental synthesis. These seleno-Chevrel phases were used for photothermal and photodynamic antibacterial and antibiofilm applications, in the absence and presence of near infrared (NIR) and white light-emitting diode (LED) illuminations on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) strains. Fe2Mo6Se8 and Cu2Mo6Se8 displayed enhanced antibacterial activities (73.1% and 60.0%, respectively) and biofilm inhibition effects (93.9% and 88.7%, respectively) on S. aureus. For E. coli bacterium, Fe2Mo6Se8 and Cu2Mo6Se8 showed also antibacterial effects (60.0% and 67.5%, respectively) and biofilm inhibition activities (88.7% and 78.1%, respectively). The increased photothermal and photodynamic activities of Fe2Mo6Se8 and Cu2Mo6Se8 can be attributed to the enhanced ROS production, which triggered probably the denaturation of bacterial proteins and nucleic acids by producing photoinduced electrons to obtain super oxide anion (•O₂̄) radical under light irradiation. Therefore, seleno-Chevrel phases could be a good alternative for medical antibacterial surface applications. Moreover, Fe2Mo6Se8 and Cu2Mo6Se8 were also used as catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution reactions. Fe2Mo6Se8 showed 1.8-fold higher photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate than that of Cu2Mo6Se8, which can be explained by the bonding properties of catalysts. This article paves the way that Chevrel phases can be effectively used for different photocatalytic and photoantimicrobial applications

    An example review of sociological critical theory: Degirmen story book

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    Edebiyat kuramları esas itibariyle bir eleştirinin tezahürüdür. Platon’dan bu yana birçok edebiyat kuramı ortaya atılmış ve her biri bir öncekine tepki olarak ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu kuramlar çeşitli edebiyat ilkelerinin ve prensiplerinin incelemesini konu alır. Edebiyat kuramları yapıları itibariyle evrenseldirler. Herhangi bir ülkenin edebiyatına ait bir kuram bir başka ülke edebiyatının ortaya koymuş olduğu metinlere amaçları doğrultusunda uygulanabilmektedir. Sosyolojik Eleştiri Kuramı da edebi eserle toplumsal olanlar arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemesi dolayısıyla dünyanın herhangi bir yerinde bir toplumu ele alan metne uygulanabilmektedir. Esas olarak toplumsal gerçekçi bir yazar olan Sabahattin Ali’nin eserlerinin büyük bir çoğunluğunda toplum sorunları, toplumsal ilişkileri, sosyal sınıfları vb. görmek mümkündür. Bu özellik, öykülerinde diğer eserlerine oranla daha yoğun bir şekilde görülmektedir. Çalışmada ele aldığımız Değirmen öykü kitabı ele aldığı sosyal adaletsizlik ve sınıfsal ayrım, toplumsal yozlaşma gibi toplumsal sorunları irdelemektedir. Ayrıca köy yaşantısı ve sorunları, şehirli ve köylü sınıfsal farkların da kimi öykülerde vurgulanan unsurlardan olduğu görülmektedir. Çalışmada tüm bu unsurlar Sosyolojik Eleştiri Kuramı çerçevesinde ele alınmıştır.Literary theories are essentially a manifestation of criticism. Many theories of literature have been put forward since Plato, and each of them arose in response to the previous one. These theories are the subject of the study of various literary principles and principles. A theory belonging to the literature of any country can be applied for its purposes to texts put forward by the literature of another country. Sociological Theory of Criticism also examines the relationship between literary works and social ones it can be applied to a text that deals with a society anywhere in the world. In a large majority of the works of Sabahattin Ali, who is mainly a social realist writer, social problems, social relations, social classes, etc. it is possible to see. This feature is seen more intensely in his stories than in his other works. The story book titled Degirmen, which is the object of this study, examines such social problems as social injustice, class discrimination, and social corruption In addition, it is seen that village life and problems, urban and peasant class differences are also among the elements emphasized in some stories. In the study, all these issues are discussed within the framework of the theory of Sociological Criticism

    Artiodactyla takımının familya ve türlerinin Karyotip Simetri/Asimetri indeksi (S/AI) ile karşılaştırılması

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    The S/AI formula is a parameter used to determine the karyotype asymmetry in higher animals and humans. The formula was performed to the 47 Artiodactyla species. According to the S/AI values between 1.0000 and 3.0000, the dendrograms were drawn demonstrating the interspecies and interfamilies relationships in Artiodactyla. The female karyotype types are between symmetric and asymmetric in the eight families, 18 genera and 36 species; symmetric in the five families, nine genera and 10 species; full symmetric in the only one family, genus and species. The male karyotype types are between symmetric and asymmetric in the 8 families, 18 genera and 34 species; symmetric in the five families, eight genera and nine species; full symmetric in the only one family, genus and species.The S/AI formula is a parameter used to determine the karyotype asymmetry in animals and humans. The formula was performed to the 47 Artiodactyla species. According to the S/AI values between 1.0000 and 3.0000, the dendrograms were drawn demonstrating the interspecies and interfamilies relationships in Artiodactyla. The female karyotype types are between symmetric and asymmetric in the eight families, 18 genera and 36 species; symmetric in the five families, nine genera and 10 species; full symmetric in the only one family, genus and species. The male karyotype types are between symmetric and asymmetric in the 8 families, 18 genera and 34 species; symmetric in the five families, eight genera and nine species; full symmetric in the only one family, genus and species

    Microstructure development and mechanical behaviour of pure copper processed by the novel TWO-CAP procedure

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    WOS:001019416700001In this study, thin-walled open channel angular pressing (TWO-CAP) technique was applied to pure copper specimens as a novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) method. The TWO-CAP process was applied to the specimens up to four passes. After each pass, the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the material was investigated by tensile and hardness tests along with OM, SEM, EDS, TEM and XRD analyses. As a result, a highly increase in the mechanical properties was obtained, in addition satisfactory grain refinement was observed in microstructures. Strength and hardness values were positively affected from the minimizing the grain sizes after TWO-CAP process. Another reason of the improvements in mechanical properties can be explained as the increase in dislocation density. Furthermore, the effect of the TWO-CAP process on the dislocation density of the material has been demonstrated by XRD and TEM analyses in nanoscale. Moreover, the strain equation has been developed analytically and the effect of each pass on strain was calculated. Finally, the effect of the process on the stress-strain properties of the material was examined by the numerical analysis method and the study was verified

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