68,351 research outputs found

    Association between exposure to second-hand smoke and telomere length: cross-sectional study of 1303 non-smokers

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    Background: Both active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study. Inclusion was restricted to non-smokers aged ≥ 18 years, who had provided self-reported overall usual SHS exposure (total hours per week) and blood samples for telomere analysis. Linear regression models were used to compare the ratio of telomere repeat copy number to single copy gene number (T/S)by age according to SHS exposure. Results: Of the 1303 eligible participants, 779 (59.8%) reported no SHS exposure, 495 (38.0%) low exposure (1–19 h per week) and 29 (2.2%) high exposure (≥20 h per week). In the univariate linear regression analyses, relative T/S ratio declined with increasing age in all exposure groups. Telomere length decreased more rapidly with increasing age among those with high exposure to SHS [adjusted coefficient −0.019, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.031- −0.007) when compared with both those with no exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient −0.006, 95% CI −0.008- −0.004) (high vs no SHS: P = 0.010) and those with low exposure to SHS (adjusted coefficient −0.005, 95% CI −0.007- −0.003) (high vs low SHS: P = 0.005). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that high SHS exposure may accelerate normal biological ageing, and support efforts to protect the public from SHS exposure. Further studies on relevant mechanisms should be conducted

    Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with cognitive parameters of children and adolescents?—a systematic literature review

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    PURPOSE: Despite the known association of second hand smoke (SHS) with increased risk of ill health and mortality, the effects of SHS exposure on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents are unclear. Through a critical review of the literature we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between these variables. METHODS: The authors systematically reviewed articles (dated 1989–2012) that investigated the association between SHS exposure (including in utero due to SHS exposure by pregnant women) and performance on neurocognitive and academic tests. Eligible studies were identified from searches of Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Google Scholar, CINAHL, EMBASE, Zetoc, and Clinicaltrials.gov. RESULTS: Fifteen articles were identified, of which 12 showed inverse relationships between SHS and cognitive parameters. Prenatal SHS exposure was inversely associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in young children, whereas postnatal SHS exposure was associated with poor academic achievement and neurocognitive performance in older children and adolescents. Furthermore, SHS exposure was associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations should be made to the public to avoid sources of SHS and future research should investigate interactions between SHS exposure and other risk factors for delayed neurodevelopment and poor cognitive performance

    Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Arrhythmogenic Cardiac Alternans in a Mouse Model.

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    BackgroundEpidemiological evidence suggests that a majority of deaths attributed to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are cardiovascular related. However, to our knowledge, the impact of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology, [Formula: see text] handling, and arrhythmia risk has not been studied.ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an environmentally relevant concentration of SHS on cardiac electrophysiology and indicators of arrhythmia.MethodsMale C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SHS [total suspended particles (THS): [Formula: see text], nicotine: [Formula: see text], carbon monoxide: [Formula: see text], or filtered air (FA) for 4, 8, or 12 wk ([Formula: see text]]. Hearts were excised and Langendorff perfused for dual optical mapping with voltage- and [Formula: see text]-sensitive dyes.ResultsAt slow pacing rates, SHS exposure did not alter baseline electrophysiological parameters. With increasing pacing frequency, action potential duration (APD), and intracellular [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude progressively increased in all groups. At 4 and 8 wk, there were no statistical differences in APD or [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude between SHS and FA groups. At 12 wk, both APD and [Formula: see text] alternans magnitude were significantly increased in the SHS compared to FA group ([Formula: see text]). SHS exposure did not impact the time constant of [Formula: see text] transient decay ([Formula: see text]) at any exposure time point. At 12 wk exposure, the recovery of [Formula: see text] transient amplitude with premature stimuli was slightly (but nonsignificantly) delayed in SHS compared to FA hearts, suggesting that [Formula: see text] release via ryanodine receptors may be impaired.ConclusionsIn male mice, chronic exposure to SHS at levels relevant to social situations in humans increased their susceptibility to cardiac alternans, a known precursor to ventricular arrhythmia. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3664

    How `sticky' are short-range square-well fluids?

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    The aim of this work is to investigate to what extent the structural properties of a short-range square-well (SW) fluid of range λ\lambda at a given packing fraction and reduced temperature can be represented by those of a sticky-hard-sphere (SHS) fluid at the same packing fraction and an effective stickiness parameter τ\tau. Such an equivalence cannot hold for the radial distribution function since this function has a delta singularity at contact in the SHS case, while it has a jump discontinuity at r=λr=\lambda in the SW case. Therefore, the equivalence is explored with the cavity function y(r)y(r). Optimization of the agreement between y_{\sw} and y_{\shs} to first order in density suggests the choice for τ\tau. We have performed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of the SW fluid for λ=1.05\lambda=1.05, 1.02, and 1.01 at several densities and temperatures TT^* such that τ=0.13\tau=0.13, 0.2, and 0.5. The resulting cavity functions have been compared with MC data of SHS fluids obtained by Miller and Frenkel [J. Phys: Cond. Matter 16, S4901 (2004)]. Although, at given values of η\eta and τ\tau, some local discrepancies between y_{\sw} and y_{\shs} exist (especially for λ=1.05\lambda=1.05), the SW data converge smoothly toward the SHS values as λ1\lambda-1 decreases. The approximate mapping y_{\sw}\to y_{\shs} is exploited to estimate the internal energy and structure factor of the SW fluid from those of the SHS fluid. Taking for y_{\shs} the solution of the Percus--Yevick equation as well as the rational-function approximation, the radial distribution function g(r)g(r) of the SW fluid is theoretically estimated and a good agreement with our MC simulations is found. Finally, a similar study is carried out for short-range SW fluid mixtures.Comment: 14 pages, including 3 tables and 14 figures; v2: typo in Eq. (5.1) corrected, Fig. 14 redone, to be published in JC

    Social Determinants of Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy: Findings From Waves 1 & 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study

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    Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure are associated with a myriad of negative health effects for both mother and child. However, less is known regarding social determinants for SHS exposure, which may differ from those of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP). To identify social determinants for SHS exposure only, MSDP only, and MSDP and SHS exposure, data were obtained from all pregnant women (18–54 years; N = 726) in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (2014–2015). Multiple logistic regressions were conducted using SAS 9.4. Smoke exposure during pregnancy was common; 23.0% reported SHS exposure only, 6.1% reported MSDP only, and 11.8% reported both SHS exposure and MSDP. Results demonstrate that relationships between smoke exposure during pregnancy and social determinants vary by type of exposure. Women at risk for any smoke exposure during pregnancy include those who are unmarried and allow the use of combustible tobacco products within the home. Those who are at higher risk for SHS exposure include those who are younger in age, and those who are earlier in their pregnancy. Those who are at higher risk for maternal smoking include those with fair/poor mental health status and those who believe that others\u27 view tobacco use more positively. These results suggest the need for implementing more comprehensive policies that promote smoke-free environments. Implementing these strategies have the potential to improve maternal and fetal health outcomes associated with tobacco smoke exposure

    Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of incident peripheral arterial disease and mortality: a Scotland-wide retrospective cohort study of 4045 non-smokers with cotinine measurement

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    Background: Active smoking is an important risk factor for all-cause mortality and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In contrast, published studies on the associations with secondhand smoke (SHS) are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between SHS exposure and incident PAD, as well as mortality, among middle-aged non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a retrospective, cohort study using record linkage of the Scottish Health Surveys between 1998 and 2010 to hospital admissions and death certificates. Inclusion was restricted to participants aged > 45 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the association between SHS exposure and incident PAD (hospital admission or death) and all-cause mortality, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Of the 4045 confirmed non-smokers (self-reported non-smokers with salivary cotinine concentrations < 15 ng/mL), 1163 (28.8%) had either moderate or high exposure to SHS at baseline. In men, high exposure to SHS (cotinine ≥2.7 ng/mL) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.54, 95% CI 1.07–2.22, p = 0.020) with evidence of a dose-relationship (p for trend = 0.004). In men, high exposure to SHS was associated with increased risk of incident PAD over the first five years of follow-up (fully adjusted HR 4.29, 95% CI 1.14–16.10, p = 0.031) but the association became non-significant over longer term follow-up. Conclusions: SHS exposure was independently associated with all-cause mortality and may be associated with PAD, but larger studies, or meta-analyses, are required to confirm the latter

    Flux calibration of the AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS H-alpha Survey

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    The AAO/UKST SuperCOSMOS Hα\alpha Survey (SHS) was, when completed in 2003, a powerful addition to extant wide-field surveys. The combination of areal coverage, spatial resolution and sensitivity in a narrow imaging band, still marks it out today as an excellent resource for the astronomical community. The 233 separate fields are available online in digital form, with each field covering 25 square degrees. The SHS has been the motivation for equivalent surveys in the north, and new digital Hα\alpha surveys now beginning in the south such as VPHAS+. It has been the foundation of many important discovery projects with the Macquarie/AAO/Strasbourg Hα\alpha planetary nebula project being a particularly successful example. However, the full potential of the SHS has been hampered by lack of a clear route to acceptable flux calibration from the base photographic data. We have determined the calibration factors for 170 individual SHS fields, and present a direct pathway to the measurement of integrated Hα\alpha fluxes and surface brightnesses for resolved nebulae detected in the SHS. We also include a catalogue of integrated Hα\alpha fluxes for >>100 planetary and other nebulae measured from the SHS, and use these data to show that fluxes, accurate to ±\pm 0.10 - 0.14 dex (\sim25-35 per cent), can be obtained from these fields. For the remaining 63 fields, a mean calibration factor of 12.0 counts pix1^{-1} R1^{-1} can be used, allowing the determination of reasonable integrated fluxes accurate to better than ±\pm0.2 dex (\sim50 per cent). We outline the procedures involved and the caveats that need to be appreciated in achieving such flux measurements. This paper forms a handy reference source that will significantly increase the scientific utility of the SHS.Comment: 14 pages, 12 figures, 2 tables (plus 7 pp. of supplementary online information). Version to appear in MNRA