27,413 research outputs found

    One Small Step for Generative AI, One Giant Leap for AGI: A Complete Survey on ChatGPT in AIGC Era

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    OpenAI has recently released GPT-4 (a.k.a. ChatGPT plus), which is demonstrated to be one small step for generative AI (GAI), but one giant leap for artificial general intelligence (AGI). Since its official release in November 2022, ChatGPT has quickly attracted numerous users with extensive media coverage. Such unprecedented attention has also motivated numerous researchers to investigate ChatGPT from various aspects. According to Google scholar, there are more than 500 articles with ChatGPT in their titles or mentioning it in their abstracts. Considering this, a review is urgently needed, and our work fills this gap. Overall, this work is the first to survey ChatGPT with a comprehensive review of its underlying technology, applications, and challenges. Moreover, we present an outlook on how ChatGPT might evolve to realize general-purpose AIGC (a.k.a. AI-generated content), which will be a significant milestone for the development of AGI.Comment: A Survey on ChatGPT and GPT-4, 29 pages. Feedback is appreciated ([email protected]

    How does firm ownership concentration and female directors influence tax haven foreign direct investment? Evidence from Asia-Pacific and OECD countries

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    The literature on tax havens utilization by multinational enterprises (MNEs) has largely focused on determinants that are financial or technological in nature. We contribute to this literature by showing important corporate governance determinants for tax haven utilization by Asia-Pacific and OECD country MNEs. Theoretically, we show that ownership concentration and female board membership influence tax haven utilization. Empirically, we show negative associations between ownership concentration and female board membership and the likelihood of owning a subsidiary in a tax haven. Based on our results, we draw a number of implications for theoretical and empirical work, which also opens the door for further investigation in this area

    Penerapan Tindak Pidana Khalwat di Aceh (Studi Kasus Kota Banda Aceh, Lhokseumawe, dan Langsa)

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji dan menguraikan latar belakang dibalik rumusan tindak pidana khalwat dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Hukum Jinayat, ingin menemukan dan menjelaskan persepsi masyarakat terhadap tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh, ingin menemukan dan membandingkan pertimbangan hakim dalam menjatuhkan pemidanaan terhadap pelaku tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh, dan ingin menemukan dan menjelaskan hukuman yang dapat memberikan efek jera kepada pelaku tindak pidana khalwat di Aceh. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode normatif-empiris dengan pendekatan undang-undang dan pendekatan kasus. Data primer adalah Wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi, data sekundernya adalah Al-Qur`an; dan Undang-Undang yang serta buku/kitab dan artikel jurnal yang relevan. Hasil penelitian adalah; Pertama, Latar belakang rumusan pelarangan tindak pidana khalwat dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 tentang Hukum Jinayat adalah untuk mencegah terjadinya jinayat yang lebih besar, yaitu zina. Pembentukan aturan jinayat khalwat dalam Qanun merupakan salah satu bentuk kepedulian Pemerintah Aceh terhadap regulasi “kesusilaan” yang mengarah kepada perbuatan jinayat zina. Kedua, Masyarakat sangat mendukung pembentukan aturan jinayat khalwat yang bertujuan demi kebaikan dan kemaslahatan ummat. Pengaturan terhadap jinayat khalwat adalah refleksi kehidupan masyarakat Aceh yang sangat Islami, sehingga perlindungan terhadap kehormatan diri dan keluarganya. Ketiga, Pertimbangan hakim dalam menjatuhkan pemidanaan terhadap pelaku jinayat khalwat didasarkan kepada Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014. Apabila perbuatan pelaku jinayat khalwat memenuhi unsur-unsur pasal atau ketentuan yang dirumuskan dalam Qanun Jinayat, maka seseorang yang diduga telah melakukan jinayat khalwat dapat dijatuhi hukuman. Keempat, Hukuman khalwat sebagaimana dalam Qanun No. 6 Tahun 2014 adalah berupa ‘uqubat cambuk, membayar sejumlah denda berupa emas dan hukuman penjara. ‘Uqubat cambuk lebih dominan dibanding dua ‘uqubat lainnya. Penerapan jinayat secara umum dipandang efektif dan memberikan efek jera bagi pelaku pelanggaran khalwat. Khusus di Kota Banda Aceh tidak semua kasus diselesaikan, sebab kasus khalwat bagi pelajar dikembalikan kepada keluarganya untuk pembinaan

    Identifying and responding to people with mild learning disabilities in the probation service

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    It has long been recognised that, like many other individuals, people with learningdisabilities find their way into the criminal justice system. This fact is not disputed. Whathas been disputed, however, is the extent to which those with learning disabilities arerepresented within the various agencies of the criminal justice system and the ways inwhich the criminal justice system (and society) should address this. Recently, social andlegislative confusion over the best way to deal with offenders with learning disabilities andmental health problems has meant that the waters have become even more muddied.Despite current government uncertainty concerning the best way to support offenders withlearning disabilities, the probation service is likely to continue to play a key role in thesupervision of such offenders. The three studies contained herein aim to clarify the extentto which those with learning disabilities are represented in the probation service, toexamine the effectiveness of probation for them and to explore some of the ways in whichprobation could be adapted to fit their needs.Study 1 and study 2 showed that around 10% of offenders on probation in Kent appearedto have an IQ below 75, putting them in the bottom 5% of the general population. Study 3was designed to assess some of the support needs of those with learning disabilities in theprobation service, finding that many of the materials used by the probation service arelikely to be too complex for those with learning disabilities to use effectively. To addressthis, a model for service provision is tentatively suggested. This is based on the findings ofthe three studies and a pragmatic assessment of what the probation service is likely to becapable of achieving in the near future

    Victims' Access to Justice in Trinidad and Tobago: An exploratory study of experiences and challenges of accessing criminal justice in a post-colonial society

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    This thesis investigates victims' access to justice in Trinidad and Tobago, using their own narratives. It seeks to capture how their experiences affected their identities as victims and citizens, alongside their perceptions of legitimacy regarding the criminal justice system. While there have been some reforms in the administration of criminal justice in Trinidad and Tobago, such reforms have not focused on victims' accessibility to the justice system. Using grounded theory methodology, qualitative data was collected through 31 in-depth interviews with victims and victim advocates. The analysis found that victims experienced interpersonal, structural, and systemic barriers at varying levels throughout the criminal justice system, which manifested as institutionalized secondary victimization, silencing and inequality. This thesis argues that such experiences not only served to appropriate conflict but demonstrates that access is often given in a very narrow sense. Furthermore, it shows a failure to encompass access to justice as appropriated conflicts are left to stagnate in the system as there is often very little resolution. Adopting a postcolonial lens to analyse victims' experiences, the analysis identified othering practices that served to institutionalize the vulnerability and powerlessness associated with victim identities. Here, it is argued that these othering practices also affected the rights consciousness of victims, delegitimating their identities as citizens. Moreover, as a result of their experiences, victims had mixed perceptions of the justice system. It is argued that while the system is a legitimate authority victims' endorsement of the system is questionable, therefore victims' experiences suggest that there is a reinforcement of the system's legal hegemony. The findings suggest that within the legal system of Trinidad and Tobago, legacies of colonialism shape the postcolonial present as the psychology and inequalities of the past are present in the interactions and processes of justice. These findings are relevant for policymakers in Trinidad and Tobago and other regions. From this study it is recognized that, to improve access to justice for victims, there needs to be a move towards victim empowerment that promotes resilience and enhances social capital. Going forward it is noted that there is a need for further research

    Queens of the Hill: How Title IX Fares in the Hilltop Neighborhood of Columbus, Ohio

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    National research indicates that Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 leaves Black girls behind in the pursuit of gender equity. Low rates of participation and high dropout rates in girls sports plague low-income, majority-minority high schools. This thesis investigates whether the national research holds true in Columbus, Ohio, specifically at West High School. Following from a series of interviews with coaches, teachers, and a student, I find that West High School’s athletic program is Title IX compliant, but girls at West High School still face severe barriers to sports participation. A school can comply with Title IX and fall short of equal opportunity for sports participation. Title IX leaves girls at West High School behind because it is reliant on a top-down approach of administrative punishment, threatening the loss of federal funding. To achieve authentic gender equity, West High School and other low-income, majority-minority schools must supplement Title IX with a bottom-up approach that is community and culturally centered

    Universal Challenges of Policing Rooted in Colonialism in the United States and Nigeria

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    Growing awareness regarding police brutality has generated a massive shift in public views on police institutions and the need for reform. The universal challenges of police authority, abuse, and impunity plague policing institutions across the globe. The roots of many of these contemporary challenges can be traced to European colonization. This paper explores policing structures, abuse, and impunity in the United States and Nigeria

    The Genetics of Pain: An exploration of gene-by-environment interactions and their effects on pain

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    The findings presented in this dissertation are part of the bigger SYMBIOME project which aims to use the biopsychosocial model of pain to develop a prognostic clinical phenotype for people that experience musculoskeletal (MSK) trauma. Chapter 2 presents an exploratory analysis to assess the relationships between genetic polymorphisms and pain severity and interference. Early childhood trauma was also explored as a moderator between genetic polymorphisms and pain outcomes. For pain severity, major allele carriers (A/A and G/A) of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers (G/G). Further, major allele carriers who had at least one adverse childhood experience (ACE) reported significantly higher scores than minor allele carriers with at least one ACE. For pain interference, minor allele carriers (G/G) of CNR2 rs2501431 scored significantly higher than major allele carriers (A/A and G/A). Chapter 3 presents a cluster analysis that combines genotypes of FKBP5 rs9394314 and CNR2 rs2501431 to explore meaningful relationships with pain and trauma-related distress. ACE was also explored as a moderator of these relationships. Three clusters were identified where the second cluster characterized by major allele carriers of rs9394314 and minor allele carriers of rs2501431 reported significantly higher pain-related functional interference scores. Participants in the second cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain interference and traumatic distress scores compared to the third cluster, while participants in the first cluster with at least one ACE reported higher pain severity compared to the first cluster. Chapter 4 presents genomic structural equation models (SEM) that explore the relationships of genotypes with trauma-related distress using the traumatic injuries distress scale (TIDS), ACE, and recovery outcomes. The results demonstrate a relationship between TIDS and recovery outcomes, and an indirect relationship between FKBP5 rs9394314 and recovery outcomes exist which is mediated by TIDS. Major allele carriers of FKBP5 rs9394314 reported higher TIDS scores, which was also demonstrated for participants that had at least one ACE. Major allele carriers that scored higher on the TIDS were predicted to be in the none-recovered category. These results support the notion that gene-x-environment interactions may play an important role in pain and recovery

    Lift EVERY Voice and Sing: An Intersectional Qualitative Study Examining the Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Queer Faculty and Administrators at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

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    While there is minimal literature that address the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and trans* identified students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), the experiences of Black, queer faculty and administrators at HBCUs has not been studied. This intersectional qualitative research study focused on the experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer identified faculty and administrators who work at HBCUs. By investigating the intersections of religion, race, gender, and sexuality within a predominantly Black institution, this study aims to enhance diversity, equity, and inclusion efforts at HBCUs by sharing the experiences of the LGBQ faculty and administrators that previously or currently work at an HBCU as a full-time employee. The research questions that guided this study were 1) How have LGBQ faculty and staff negotiated/navigated their careers at HBCUs? and 2) How do LGBQ faculty and staff at HBCUs influence cultural (relating to LGBQ inclusion) change at the organizational level? The main theoretical framework used was intersectionality and it shaped the chosen methodology and methods. The Politics of Respectability was the second theoretical framework used to describe the intra-racial tensions within the Black/African American community. The study included 60-120 minute interviews with 12 participants. Using intersectionality as a guide, the data were coded and utilized for thematic analysis. Then, an ethnodramatic performance engages readers. The goals of this study were to encourage policy changes, promote inclusivity for LGBQ employees at HBCUs, and provide an expansion to the body of literature in the field pertaining to the experiences of LGBQ faculty and administrators in higher education