37,254 research outputs found

    Metaphors of London fog, smoke and mist in Victorian and Edwardian Art and Literature

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    Julian Wolfreys has argued that after 1850 writers employed stock images of the city without allowing them to transform their texts. This thesis argues, on the contrary, that metaphorical uses of London fog were complex and subtle during the Victorian and Edwardian periods, at least until 1914. Fog represented, in particular, formlessness and the dissolution of boundaries. Examining the idea of fog in literature, verse, newspaper accounts and journal articles, as well as in the visual arts, as part of a common discourse about London and the state of its inhabitants, this thesis charts how the metaphorical appropriation of this idea changed over time. Four of Dickens's novels are used to track his use of fog as part of a discourse of the natural and unnatural in individual and society, identifying it with London in progressively more negative terms. Visual representations of fog by Constable, Turner, Whistler, Monet, Markino, O'Connor, Roberts and Wyllie and Coburn showed an increasing readiness to engage with this discourse. Social tensions in the city in the 1880s were articulated in art as well as in fiction. Authors like Hay and Barr showed the destruction of London by its fog because of its inhabitants' supposed degeneracy. As the social threat receded, apocalyptic scenarios gave way to a more optimistic view in the work of Owen and others. Henry James used fog as a metaphorical representation of the boundaries of gendered behaviour in public, and the problems faced by women who crossed them. The dissertation also examines fog and individual transgression, in novels and short stories by Lowndes, Stevenson, Conan Doyle and Joseph Conrad. After 1914, fog was no more than a crude signifier of Victorian London in literature, film and, later, television, deployed as a cliche instead of the subtle metaphorical idea discussed in this thesis

    Building body identities - exploring the world of female bodybuilders

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    This thesis explores how female bodybuilders seek to develop and maintain a viable sense of self despite being stigmatized by the gendered foundations of what Erving Goffman (1983) refers to as the 'interaction order'; the unavoidable presentational context in which identities are forged during the course of social life. Placed in the context of an overview of the historical treatment of women's bodies, and a concern with the development of bodybuilding as a specific form of body modification, the research draws upon a unique two year ethnographic study based in the South of England, complemented by interviews with twenty-six female bodybuilders, all of whom live in the U.K. By mapping these extraordinary women's lives, the research illuminates the pivotal spaces and essential lived experiences that make up the female bodybuilder. Whilst the women appear to be embarking on an 'empowering' radical body project for themselves, the consequences of their activity remains culturally ambivalent. This research exposes the 'Janus-faced' nature of female bodybuilding, exploring the ways in which the women negotiate, accommodate and resist pressures to engage in more orthodox and feminine activities and appearances

    Towards a sociology of conspiracy theories: An investigation into conspiratorial thinking on D枚nmes

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    This thesis investigates the social and political significance of conspiracy theories, which has been an academically neglected topic despite its historical relevance. The academic literature focuses on the methodology, social significance and political impacts of these theories in a secluded manner and lacks empirical analyses. In response, this research provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for conspiracy theories by considering their methodology, political impacts and social significance in the light of empirical data. Theoretically, the thesis uses Adorno's semi-erudition theory along with Girardian approach. It proposes that conspiracy theories are methodologically semi-erudite narratives, i.e. they are biased in favour of a belief and use reason only to prove it. It suggests that conspiracy theories appear in times of power vacuum and provide semi-erudite cognitive maps that relieve alienation and ontological insecurities of people and groups. In so doing, they enforce social control over their audience due to their essentialist, closed-to-interpretation narratives. In order to verify the theory, the study analyses empirically the social and political significance of conspiracy theories about the D枚nme community in Turkey. The analysis comprises interviews with conspiracy theorists, conspiracy theory readers and political parties, alongside a frame analysis of the popular conspiracy theory books on D枚nmes. These confirm the theoretical framework by showing that the conspiracy theories are fed by the ontological insecurities of Turkish society. Hence, conspiracy theorists, most readers and some political parties respond to their own ontological insecurities and political frustrations through scapegoating D枚nmes. Consequently, this work shows that conspiracy theories are important symptoms of society, which, while relieving ontological insecurities, do not provide politically prolific narratives

    The Professional Identity of Doctors who Provide Abortions: A Sociological Investigation

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    Abortion is a medicalised problem in England and Wales, where the law places doctors at the centre of legal provision and puts doctors in control of who has an abortion. However, the sex-selection abortion scandal of 2012 presented a very real threat to 'abortion doctors', when the medical profession's values and practices were questioned in the media, society and by Members of Parliament. Doctors found themselves at the centre of a series of claims that stated doctors were acting both illegally and unethically, driven by profit rather than patient needs. Yet, the perspectives of those doctors who provide abortions has been under-researched; this thesis aims to fill that gap by examining the beliefs and values of this group of doctors. Early chapters highlight the ambiguous position of the abortion provider in Britain, where doctors are seen as a collective group of professionals motivated by medical dominance and medical autonomy. They outline how this position is then questioned and contested, with doctors being presented as unethical. By studying abortion at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels, this thesis seeks to better understand the values of the 'abortion doctor', and how these levels shape the work and experiences of abortion providers in England and Wales. This thesis thus addresses the question: 'What do abortion doctors' accounts of their professional work suggest about the contemporary dynamics of the medicalisation of abortion in Britain?'. It investigates the research question using a qualitative methodological approach: face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with 47 doctors who provide abortions in England and Wales. The findings from this empirical study show how doctors' values are linked to how they view the 'normalisation of abortion'. At the macro-level doctors, openly resisted the medicalisation of abortion through the position ascribed to them by the legal framework, yet at the meso-level doctors construct an identity where normalising abortion is based on further medicalising services. Finally, at the micro-level, the ambiguous position of the abortion provider is further identified in terms of being both a proud provider and a stigmatised individual. This thesis shows that while the existing medicalisation literature has some utility, it has limited explanatory power when investigating the problem of abortion. The thesis thus provides some innovative insights into the relevance and value of medicalisation through a comprehensive study on doctors' values, beliefs and practices

    The temporality of rhetoric: the spatialization of time in modern criticism

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    Every conception of criticism conceals a notion of time which informs the manner in which the critic conceives of history, representation and criticism itself. This thesis reveals the philosophies of time inherent in certain key modern critical concepts: allegory, irony and the sublime. Each concept opens a breach in time, a disruption of chronology. In each case this gap or aporia is emphatically closed, elided or denied. Taking the philosophy of time elaborated by Giorgio Agamben as an introductory proposition, my argument turns in Chapter One to the allegorical temporality which Walter Benjamin sees as the time of photography. The second chapter examines the aesthetics of the sublime as melancholic or mournful untimeliness. In Chapter Three, Paul de Man's conception of irony provides an exemplary instance of the denial of this troubling temporal predicament. In opposition to the foreclosure of the disturbing temporalities of criticism, history and representation, the thesis proposes a fundamental rethinking of the philosophy of time as it relates to these categories of reflection. In a reading of an inaugural meditation on the nature of time, and in examining certain key contemporary philosophical and critical texts, I argue for a critical attendance to that which eludes those modes of thought that attempt to map time as a recognizable and essentially spatial field. The Confessions of Augustine provide, in the fourth chapter, a model for thinking through the problems set up earlier: Augustine affords us, precisely, a means of conceiving of the gap or the interim. In the final chapter, this concept is developed with reference to the criticism of Arnold and Eliot, the fiction of Virginia Woolf and the philosophy of cinema derived from Deleuze and Lyotard. In conclusion, the philosophical implications of the thesis are placed in relation to a conception of the untimeliness of death

    Desarrollo de materiales bioactivos con potencial aplicaci贸n odontol贸gica mediante impregnaci贸n asistida por CO2 supercr铆tico

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    Tesis (DCI)--FCEFN-UNC, 2021En esta tesis se estudi贸 el proceso de incorporaci贸n de eugenol en fibras de poliamida 6 (PA6) mediante la impregnaci贸n asistida por CO2 supercr铆tico para desarrollar un material con propiedades antimicrobianas con una potencial aplicaci贸n odontol贸gica. Para este prop贸sito, se construy贸 un equipo de alta presi贸n en el que se llevaron a cabo m煤ltiples ensayos de impregnaci贸n de eugenol y de sorci贸n de CO2 en un hilo dental comercial de PA6 en distintas condiciones de presi贸n y temperatura (40 鈥 60 掳C y 8 鈥 12 MPa). Con el fin de encontrar las mejores condiciones del proceso de impregnaci贸n, se evalu贸 la influencia de diferentes variables operativas (presi贸n, temperatura, tiempo de contacto y velocidad de despresurizaci贸n) sobre la cantidad de eugenol impregnada en el material. Adem谩s, se estudiaron los principales fen贸menos difusivos que ocurren en el proceso de impregnaci贸n del eugenol en condiciones supercr铆ticas. Para ello, se hicieron ensayos de cin茅tica de sorci贸n del CO2 y del eugenol en PA6 a diferentes condiciones de presi贸n y temperatura y se determin贸 el coeficiente de difusi贸n aparente para ambas especies en este pol铆mero. Por otra parte, se evaluaron las propiedades finales del material impregnado, analizando las propiedades mec谩nicas, t茅rmicas y morfol贸gicas del material original, presurizado con CO2 e impregnado con eugenol. Adicionalmente se evalu贸 la actividad antimicrobiana del material impregnado frente a dos bacterias comunes (Escherichia coli y Staphylococcus aureus). Asimismo, se estudi贸 la migraci贸n del compuesto activo impregnado en aire y en saliva artificial, obteniendo datos importantes para el potencial desarrollo de un producto comercial, como la estimaci贸n de la vida 煤til, el tipo de envase, y tipo de aplicaci贸n del producto. Finalmente, se hizo un dise帽o y dimensionamiento de un proceso industrial para la impregnaci贸n de eugenol en bobinas de fibras de PA6 en CO2 supercr铆tico, a partir de los datos de eficiencia de impregnaci贸n y par谩metros difusivos del hilo impregnado con eugenol previamente obtenidos, realizando el dise帽o de la bobina, el equipo impregnador y los c谩lculos de sus principales requerimientos de masa y energ铆a.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, Jos茅 Euliser. Universidad Nacional de C贸rdoba. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, F铆sicas y Naturales; Argentina.Fil: Mosquera Ruiz, Jos茅 Euliser. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Instituto de Investigaci贸n y Desarrollo en Ingenier铆a de Procesos y Qu铆mica Aplicada; Argentina

    Grammatical didactics in Secondary Education and Baccalaureate: norm and linguistic variation

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    RESUMEN La did谩ctica de la lengua, en su sentido general, debe entenderse como un campo de estudio con voluntad de cientificidad y como una actividad pr谩ctica diferenciada, pero complementaria, de la ense帽anza gramatical. En Educaci贸n Secundaria y Bachillerato, la instrucci贸n gramatical dentro de la did谩ctica de la lengua resulta esencial para lograr desarrollar la competencia ling眉铆stica, pero tambi茅n para potenciar el desarrollo cognitivo. No obstante, a pesar de que existe cierta unanimidad en la defensa de esta 煤ltima idea, existe al tiempo controversia en cuanto a qu茅 metodolog铆a emplear o qu茅 contenidos gramaticales escoger. Partiendo de una revisi贸n de los distintos m茅todos tradicionales y los enfoques pedag贸gicos m谩s novedosos (Gram谩tica Escolar o Pedag贸gica y Gram谩tica Orientada a las Competencias) y bas谩ndonos en el marco legislativo actual, la finalidad principal de nuestro Trabajo Fin de M谩ster persigue dise帽ar una propuesta did谩ctica que vincule las nuevas metodolog铆as sobre did谩ctica de la gram谩tica con los postulados m谩s actuales sobre la variaci贸n ling眉铆stica. Nuestro fin 煤ltimo consiste en promover en los aprendices reflexiones metaling眉铆sticas acerca de la diversidad y la realidad ling眉铆stica m谩s cercana y trabajar las creencias y actitudes de los hablantes hacia la lengua para as铆 mejorar su competencia comunicativa y socioling眉铆stica.ABSTRACT Language teaching, in its general sense, must be understood as a field of study with a desire for scientificity and as a differentiated but complementary practical activity of grammatical teaching. In Secondary Education and Baccalaureate, grammatical instruction within the language teaching is essential to develop linguistic competence, but also to promote the cognitive development. However, despite the fact that there is a certain unanimity in the defence of this last idea, there is also controversy regarding what methodology to use or what grammatical content to choose. Starting from a review of the different traditional methods and the most innovative pedagogical approaches (School or Pedagogical Grammar and Competency-Oriented Grammar) and based on the current legislative field, the main purpose of our Final Master Project pursues to design an educational proposal that connects the new methodologies about grammatical teaching with the most current postulates about linguistic variation. Our ultimate goal is to promote metalinguistic reflections among learners about the diversity and the closest linguistic reality and to work on the speakers鈥 beliefs and attitudes towards the language in order to improve their communicative and sociolinguistic competence.M谩ster en Formaci贸n del Profesorado de Educaci贸n Secundari

    Integrated Proteomic and Metabolomic Profiling of Phytophthora cinnamomi Attack on Sweet Chestnut (Castanea sativa) Reveals Distinct Molecular Reprogramming Proximal to the Infection Site and Away from It

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    Phytophthora cinnamomi is one of the most invasive tree pathogens that devastates wild and cultivated forests. Due to its wide host range, knowledge of the infection process at the molecular level is lacking for most of its tree hosts. To expand the repertoire of studied Phytophthora-woody plant interactions and identify molecular mechanisms that can facilitate discovery of novel ways to control its spread and damaging effects, we focused on the interaction between P. cinnamomi and sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa), an economically important tree for the wood processing industry. By using a combination of proteomics, metabolomics, and targeted hormonal analysis, we mapped the effects of P. cinnamomi attack on stem tissues immediately bordering the infection site and away from it. P. cinnamomi led to a massive reprogramming of the chestnut proteome and accumulation of the stress-related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA), indicating that stem inoculation can be used as an easily accessible model system to identify novel molecular players in P. cinnamomi pathogenicity.O

    Meteorological Drought and Temperature in Sudano-Sahelian Region of Nigeria under Increasing Global Warming

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    This study examinesmeteorological drought and temperature in the Sudano-Sahelian region of Nigeria under increasing global warming. Rainfall data of 60聽years (1961 to 2020) and temperature of 40聽years (1981鈥2020) for nine stations were used to quantify drought occurrences as well as the pattern of temperature. The Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) and Student鈥檚 t-test were used to indicate if changes have occurred in the amount of rainfall and temperature (increase or decrease) over space and time in the study region. The BMDI was used because it is simple and able to depict historically documented droughts better than other indices. The student鈥檚 t-test was used to determine if the sub-period means of the series have altered significantly over time. Results show that the spatial and temporal occurrence and duration varied from one sub-area to another. Also, its intensity was mainly from mild to moderate. Results also show a consistent alternation between drought and wet years over the study period. The trend of temperature shows a tendency towards decreasing temperature during the period of study although it was not significant. The study concludes that the study region experiences climate variability that may well be part of global climate change

    Shaping the Macroeconomy of Low- and Middle-income Countries in Response to Covid-19

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    There is heterogeneity in the magnitude of the pandemic鈥檚 shortterm impact across the five low- and middle-income countries (L&MICs) that are the focus of this synthesis paper: Bangladesh, Kenya, Peru, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Based on pre-Covid-19 forecasts, Peru was supposed to grow by 3.6% but the pandemic led to an actual contraction of the Peruvian economy by 11% 鈥 suggesting 15 percentage points loss of growth due to the pandemic. Similarly, Sri Lanka was forecast to grow by 1.5% but the pandemic led to a -3.6% economic contraction in 2020 鈥 the worst in the country鈥檚 73 years of independence. Meanwhile, Tanzania grew by 4.8% in 2020, which is only about 1 percentage point lower than pre-Covid-19 forecasts. Structural characteristics, initial macroeconomic conditions, and the size and quality of policy responses largely shaped the absolute and distributional impact of Covid-19 in the five L&MICs. Impacts from sharp declines in tourism activities in 2020 were offset partly by increased global demand from their major exports of agricultural products (e.g., Kenya, Peru) and gold (e.g., Tanzania). Bangladesh benefitted from a quick recovery of major trading partners鈥 demand for garments (comprising 90% of Bangladeshi export).IDRC | CRD