221,008 research outputs found

    Water calcium concentration modifies whole-body calcium uptake in sea bream larvae during short-term adaptation to altered salinities

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    Whole-body calcium uptake was studied in gilthead sea bream larvae (9–83·mg) in response to changing environmental salinity and [Ca2+]. Calcium uptake increased with increased fish size and salinity. Fish exposed to calcium-enriched, diluted seawater showed increased calcium uptake compared with fish in diluted seawater alone. Calcium uptake was unchanged in Na+- enriched, diluted seawater. Overall, [Ca2+], and not salinity/osmolarity per se, appears to be the main factor contributing to calcium uptake. By contrast, drinking was reduced by a decrease in salinity/osmolarity but was little affected by external [Ca2+]. Calculations of the maximum contribution from drinking-associated calcium uptake showed that it became almost insignificant (less than 10%) through a strong decrease in drinking rate at low salinities (0–8‰). Diluted seawater enriched in calcium to the concentration present in full-strength seawater (i.e. constant calcium, decreasing salinity) restored intestinal calcium uptake to normal. Extra-intestinal calcium uptake also benefited from calcium addition but to a lesser extent

    EFFECTS of FOUR RATES of THREE NITROGEN SOURCES on YIELD and CHEMICAL COMPOSITION of MANCHAR BROMEGRASS FORAGE in the MATANUSKA VALLEY

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    Paper copies available in Archives, Acc# 2013-0059List of Tables -- List of Figures -- Summary --Introduction -- Experimental Procedure -- Results and Discussion: Yield, Nitrogen Percentage, Nitrogen Uptake, Nitrogen Recovery, Phosphorus Percentages, Phosphorus Uptake, Phosphorus Recover, Potassium Percentages, Potassium Uptake, Potassium Recovery, Calcium Percentages, Calcium Uptake, Magnesium Percentages, Magnesium Uptake, Sodium Percentages and Uptake, Aluminum, Barium, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Strontium, Zinc -- Acknowledgment -- Literature Cite

    Surface charge, fluidity, and calcium uptake by rat intestinal brush-border vesicles

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    AbstractBiological membrane outer surfaces are negatively charged and interact with positively charged calcium ion during calcium uptake. Positively charged polycations such as polyarginine bind to membranes with high affinity, displacing bound calcium from the membrane. We tested the effect of polyarginine on uptake of calcium by brush-border membrane vecicles and examined the responses in terms of membrane fluidity by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Polyarginine inhibited the saturable component of calcium uptake by a mechanism combining inhibition characteristics of strontium (competitive) and magnesium (non-competitive). Unlike the inhibition of non-saturable calcium uptake by strontium and magnesium, polyarginine increased kD, the rate constant for non-saturable calcium uptake, by a concentration dependent mechanism. These effects of polyarginine on calcium uptake were associated with decreased membrane fluidity at the uptake temperature. These findings are consistent with a role for surface negative charge in determining both saturable and non-saturable calcium uptake. Increased membrane fluidity is associated with decreased saturable and increased non-saturable calcium uptake. Although increased fluidity might be involved in the increased kD for non-saturable uptake, the concentration-specific stimulating effect of polyarginine suggests a gating mechanism

    FM1-43 reveals membrane recycling in adult inner hair cells of the mammalian cochlea

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    Neural transmission of complex sounds demands fast and sustained rates of synaptic release from the primary cochlear receptors, the inner hair cells (IHCs). The cells therefore require efficient membrane recycling. Using two-photon imaging of the membrane marker FM1-43 in the intact sensory epithelium within the cochlear bone of the adult guinea pig, we show that IHCs possess fast calcium-dependent membrane uptake at their apical pole. FM1-43 did not permeate through the stereocilial mechanotransducer channel because uptake kinetics were neither changed by the blockers dihydrostreptomycin and D-tubocurarine nor by treatment of the apical membrane with BAPTA, known to disrupt mechanotransduction. Moreover, the fluid phase marker Lucifer Yellow produced a similar labeling pattern to FM1-43, consistent with FM1-43 uptake via endocytosis. We estimate the membrane retrieval rate at similar to0.5% of the surface area of the cell per second. Labeled membrane was rapidly transported to the base of IHCs by kinesin-dependent trafficking and accumulated in structures that resembled synaptic release sites. Using confocal imaging of FM1-43 in excised strips of the organ of Corti, we show that the time constants of fluorescence decay at the basolateral pole of IHCs and apical endocytosis were increased after depolarization of IHCs with 40 mM potassium, a stimulus that triggers calcium influx and increases synaptic release. Blocking calcium channels with either cadmium or nimodipine during depolarization abolished the rate increase of apical endocytosis. We suggest that IHCs use fast calcium-dependent apical endocytosis for activity-associated replenishment of synaptic membrane

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein-stanniocalcin antagonism in regulation of bicarbonate secretion and calcium precipitation in a marine fish intestine

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    Parathyroid hormone-related protein-stanniocalcin antagonism in regulation of bicarbonate secretion and calcium precipitation in a marine fish intestine. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299: R150–R158, 2010. First published April 21, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00378.2009.—Bicarbonate secretion in the intestine (duodenum) of marine fish has been suggested to play a major role in regulation of calcium availability for uptake. However, while the end process may lead to carbonate precipitation, regulation of transport of calcium and/or bicarbonate may actually result in fine-tuning of calcium availability for transport. To test this hypothesis, sea bream (Sparus auratus) duodenal preparations were mounted in Ussing-type chambers and the effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and stanniocalcin 1 (STC 1) on the control of intestinal bicarbonate secretion and calcium transport was analyzed. As expected, PTHrP increased net calcium uptake, as a result of an increase of calcium uptake without changes in calcium efflux. In contrast, purified sea bream STC 1 caused a minor decrease of calcium uptake and a two- to threefold increase in calcium efflux. As a result, STC 1 was able to invert the calcium flux from net calcium uptake to net calcium loss, which is in keeping with its known actions as a hypocalcemic factor. Furthermore, both PTHrP and STC 1 regulate intestinal bicarbonate secretion. PTHrP increased calcium uptake and simultaneously reduced the single factor that induces calcium precipitation, bicarbonate secretion. In contrast, STC 1, while reversing the calcium net flux to make it secretory, promoted intestinal bicarbonate secretion, both actions directed to decrease the calcium gradient across the epithelium and promote immobilization in the form of bicarbonate in the intestinal lumen. Together our results provide robust evidence to support an antagonistic action of PTHrP and STC 1 in the fine control of movements of both calcium and bicarbonate in the intestine of seawater fish.This work was supported by Ministry of Science and Higher Education and European Social Funds through the Portuguese National Science Foundation Projects POCTI/CVT/55683/2004 and TDC/MAR/104008/2008 to J. Fuentes

    Effects of Aquatic Acidification on Calcium Uptake in White River Shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus Gills

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    Previous research regarding aquatic acidification has examined the protonation of the carbonate and does not consider calcium to be a limiting factor. This is the first study to suggest that pH may affect the uptake of calcium in crustacean gills. This project describes ion transport mechanisms present in the cell membranes of white river shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus gill epithelium, and the effects of pH on the uptake of calcium by these means. Partially purified membrane vesicles (PPMV) of shrimp gills were prepared through a homogenization process that has been used previously to define ion transport in crab and lobster gill tissues. In the current study, shrimp gill PPMV calcium uptake at 50 µM, and 250 µM was greatest at pH 7.0 (p=0.01, p=0.0001). A valinomycin/K+ induced membrane potential (PD) at pH 7.0 significantly increased (p=0.003) calcium uptake from that observed in the absence of a PD. An induced PD at pH 8.0 significantly increased (p=0.003) calcium uptake from that observed in the absence of a PD, however, was not significantly greater than uptake at pH 7.0 in the presence of a PD (p=0.05). Amiloride (2mM) treatments, and amiloride (2mM) + verapamil (100µM) cocktail treatments showed significant decrease in calcium uptake from the control (p=0.03), however, they were not different from each other. This indicates an electrogenic carrier with two driving forces: calcium concentration, and asymmetric exchange stoichiometry

    Population of human ventricular cell models calibrated with in vivo measurements unravels ionic mechanisms of cardiac alternans

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    Cardiac alternansis an important risk factor in cardiac physiology, and is related to the initiation of many pathophysiological conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying the generation of alternans remain unclear. In this study, we used a population of computational human ventricle models based onthe O’Hara model [1] to explore the effect of 11 key factors experimentally reported to be related to alternans. In vivo experimental datasets coming from patients undergoing cardiac surgery were used in the calibration of our in silico population of models. The calibrated models in the population were divided into two groups (Normal and Alternans) depending on alternans occurrence. Our results showed that there were significant differences in the following 5 ionic currents between the two groups: fast sodium current, sodium calcium exchanger current, sodium potassium pump current, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release flux and SR calcium reuptake flux. Further analysis indicated that fast sodium current and SR calcium uptake were the two most significant currents that contributed to voltage and calcium alternans generation, respectively

    Coronary 18F-Fluoride Uptake and Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification

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    Background Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-fluoride) to detect microcalcification may provide insight into disease activity in coronary atherosclerosis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between 18F-fluoride uptake and progression of coronary calcification in patients with clinically stable coronary artery disease. Methods Patients with established multivessel coronary atherosclerosis underwent 18F-fluoride PET-computed tomography angiography and computed tomography calcium scoring, with repeat computed tomography angiography and calcium scoring at one year. Coronary PET uptake was analyzed qualitatively and semiquantitatively in diseased vessels by measuring maximum tissue-to-background ratio. Coronary calcification was quantified by measuring calcium score, mass, and volume. Results In a total of 183 participants (median age 66 years, 80% male), 116 (63%) patients had increased 18F-fluoride uptake in at least one vessel. Individuals with increased 18F-fluoride uptake demonstrated more rapid progression of calcification compared with those without uptake (change in calcium score, 97 [39-166] versus 35 [7-93] AU; P<0.0001). Indeed, the calcium score only increased in coronary segments with 18F-fluoride uptake (from 95 [30-209] to 148 [61-289] AU; P<0.001) and remained unchanged in segments without 18F-fluoride uptake (from 46 [16-113] to 49 [20-115] AU; P=0.329). Baseline coronary 18F-fluoride maximum tissue-to-background ratio correlated with 1-year change in calcium score, calcium volume, and calcium mass (Spearman ρ=0.37, 0.38, and 0.46, respectively; P<0.0001 for all). At the segmental level, baseline 18F-fluoride activity was an independent predictor of calcium score at 12 months (P<0.001). However, at the patient level, this was not independent of age, sex, and baseline calcium score (P=0.50). Conclusions Coronary 18F-fluoride uptake identifies both patients and individual coronary segments with more rapid progression of coronary calcification, providing important insights into disease activity within the coronary circulation. At the individual patient level, total calcium score remains an important marker of disease burden and progression. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02110303
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