159,688 research outputs found

    Risk Factors for Long-Term Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

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    BackgroundCoronary artery calcium (CAC) detected by noncontrast cardiac computed tomography scanning is a measure of coronary atherosclerosis burden. Increasing CAC levels have been strongly associated with increased coronary events. Prior studies of cardiovascular disease risk factors and CAC progression have been limited by short follow-up or restricted to patients with advanced disease.Methods and resultsWe examined cardiovascular disease risk factors and CAC progression in a prospective multiethnic cohort study. CAC was measured 1 to 4 times (mean 2.5 scans) over 10 years in 6810 adults without preexisting cardiovascular disease. Mean CAC progression was 23.9 Agatston units/year. An innovative application of mixed-effects models investigated associations between cardiovascular disease risk factors and CAC progression. This approach adjusted for time-varying factors, was flexible with respect to follow-up time and number of observations per participant, and allowed simultaneous control of factors associated with both baseline CAC and CAC progression. Models included age, sex, study site, scanner type, and race/ethnicity. Associations were observed between CAC progression and age (14.2 Agatston units/year per 10 years [95% CI 13.0 to 15.5]), male sex (17.8 Agatston units/year [95% CI 15.3 to 20.3]), hypertension (13.8 Agatston units/year [95% CI 11.2 to 16.5]), diabetes (31.3 Agatston units/year [95% CI 27.4 to 35.3]), and other factors.ConclusionsCAC progression analyzed over 10 years of follow-up, with a novel analytical approach, demonstrated strong relationships with risk factors for incident cardiovascular events. Longitudinal CAC progression analyzed in this framework can be used to evaluate novel cardiovascular risk factors

    Mitral Annular and Coronary Artery Calcification Are Associated with Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals.

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    BackgroundHIV infection increases cardiovascular risk. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC) identify patients at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MAC, CAC and mortality in HIV-infected individuals.Methods and resultsWe studied 152 asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and computed tomography (CT). MAC was identified on TTE using standardized criteria. Presence of CAC, CAC score and CAC percentiles were determined using the modified Agatston criteria. Mortality data was obtained from the Social Security and National Death Indices (SSDI/NDI). The median age was 49 years; 87% were male. The median duration of HIV was 16 years; 84% took antiretroviral therapy; 64% had an undetectable viral load. CVD risk factors included hypertension (35%), smoking (62%) and dyslipidemia (35%). Twenty-five percent of individuals had MAC, and 42% had CAC. Over a median follow-up of 8 years, 11 subjects died. Subjects with CAC had significantly higher mortality compared to those with MAC only or no MAC. The Harrell's C-statistic of CAC was 0.66 and increased to 0.75 when MAC was added (p = 0.05). MAC, prior CVD, age and HIV viral load were independently associated with higher age- and gender-adjusted CAC percentiles in an adjusted model (p < 0.05 for all).ConclusionIn HIV patients, the presence of MAC, traditional risk factors and HIV viral load were independently associated with CAC. Presence of CAC and MAC may be useful in identifying HIV-infected individuals at higher risk for death

    Diabetes and male sex are key risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification: A Euro-CCAD study.

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    Background and aimsAlthough much has been written about the conventional cardiovascular risk factor correlates of the extent of coronary artery calcification (CAC), few studies have been carried out on symptomatic patients. This paper assesses the potential ability of risk factors to associate with an increasing CAC score.MethodsFrom the European Calcific Coronary Artery Disease (Euro-CCAD) cohort, we retrospectively investigated 6309 symptomatic patients, 62% male, from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the USA. All had conventional cardiovascular risk factor assessment and CT scanning for CAC scoring.ResultsAmong all patients, male sex (OR = 4.85, p<0.001) and diabetes (OR = 2.36, p<0.001) were the most important risk factors of CAC extent, with age, hypertension, dyslipidemia and smoking also showing a relationship. Among patients with CAC, age, diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were associated with an increasing CAC score in males and females, with diabetes being the strongest dichotomous risk factor (p<0.001 for both). These results were echoed in quantile regression, where diabetes was consistently the most important correlate with CAC extent in every quantile in both males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively.ConclusionIn addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes

    Impaired aortic distensibility measured by computed tomography is associated with the severity of coronary artery disease.

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    Impaired aortic distensibility index (ADI) is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. This study evaluates the relation of ADI measured by computed tomographic angiography (CTA) with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Two hundred and twenty-nine subjects,age 63 ± 9 years, 42% female, underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scanning and CTA, and their ADI and Framingham risk score (FRS) were measured. End-systolic and end-diastolic (ED) cross-sectional-area(CSA) of ascending-aorta (AAo) was measured 15-mm above the left-main coronary ostium. ADI was defined as: [(Δlumen-CSA)/(lumen-CSA in ED × systemic-pulse-pressure) × 10(3)]. ADI measured by 2D-trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) was compared with CTA-measured ADI in 26 subjects without CAC. CAC was defined as 0, 1-100, 101-400 and 400+. CAD was defined as luminal stenosis 0, 1-49% and 50%+. There was an excellent correlation between CTA- and TTE-measured ADI (r(2)=0.94, P=0.0001). ADI decreased from CAC 0 to CAC 400+; similarly from FRS 1-9% to FRS 20% + (P<0.05). After adjustment for risk factors, the relative risk for each standard deviation decrease in ADI was 1.66 for CAC 1-100, 2.26 for CAC 101-400 and 2.32 for CAC 400+ as compared to CAC 0; similarly, 2.36 for non-obstructive CAD and 2.67 for obstructive CAD as compared to normal coronaries. The area under the ROC-curve to predict significant CAD was 0.68 for FRS, 0.75 for ADI, 0.81 for CAC and 0.86 for the combination (P<0.05). Impaired aortic distensibility strongly correlates with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Addition of ADI to CAC and traditional risk factors provides incremental value to predict at-risk individuals

    Mild and moderate pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease is associated with increased coronary artery calcium.

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    BackgroundIt is increasingly evident that patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more likely to die from heart disease than kidney failure. This study evaluated whether pre- dialysis CKD is an independent risk factor for coronary artery calcium (CAC).MethodsA total of 544 consecutive patients who underwent CAC scoring were analyzed. Eleven patients requiring hemodialysis were excluded. Patients were divided into three groups: normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (GFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m²), mild CKD (90 ≥ GFR > 60 mL/min/1.73 m²), and moderate CKD (60 ≥ GFR > 30 mL/min/1.73 m²). Continuous and categorical variables were compared using analysis of variance and the χ² statistic. A multiple logistic regression model was used for detecting the association between total CAC score and GFR. An unadjusted model was used, followed by a second model adjusted for covariates known to be related to CAC. Another multivariable binary logistic model predicting the presence of CAC (>10) was performed and odds of incidence of CAC (>10) were calculated among the three GFR subgroups.ResultsAfter adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD had mean CAC scores 175 points higher than those with the referent normal GFR (P = 0.048), while those with moderate CKD had mean CAC scores 693 points higher than the referent (P < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, patients with mild CKD were found to be 2.2 times more likely (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.7, P = 0.004) and patients with moderate CKD were 6.4 times more likely (95% confidence interval 2.9-14.3, P < 0.001) to have incident CAC compared with the group with normal GFR.ConclusionMild and moderate pre-dialysis CKD are independent risk factors for increased mean and incident CAC
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