74 research outputs found

    Impact of nonstationarities on short heart rate variability recordings during obstructive sleep apnea

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    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder characterized by breathing pauses due to collapse of the upper airways. During OSA the autonomic modulation, as noninvasively assessed through heart period (HP) variability, is altered in a time-varying way even though time-varying properties of HP fluctuations are often disregarded by HP variability studies. We performed a time domain analysis computed over very short epochs corresponding to the sole OSA events explicitly accounting for HP variability nonstationarities. Length-matched epochs were extracted during OSA and quiet sleep (SLEEP) in 13 subjects suffering from OSA (11 males, age 55±11, apnea-hypopnea index 44±19). Mean HP, variance and variance of the residual after exponential detrending were assessed as well as the parameters a and b of the exponential fitting in the form y(n)=a·exp(b·n). HP mean and the parameter a increased during OSA compared to SLEEP. The variance of the residual was significantly lower than original variance during both OSA and SLEEP, while the dispersion of the parameter b was significantly larger. Nonstationarities were evident during both SLEEP and OSA but more dramatically apparent during OSA, thus stressing the need of accounting for them when the autonomic control during OSA is under scrutiny

    Disentangling cardiovascular control mechanisms during head-down tilt via joint transfer entropy and self-entropy decompositions

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    A full decomposition of the predictive entropy (PE) of the spontaneous variations of the heart period (HP) given systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiration (R) is proposed. The PE of HP is decomposed into the joint transfer entropy (JTE) from SAP and R to HP and self-entropy (SE) of HP. The SE is the sum of three terms quantifying the synergistic/redundant contributions of HP and SAP, when taken individually and jointly, to SE and one term conditioned on HP and SAP denoted as the conditional SE (CSE) of HP given SAP and R. The JTE from SAP and R to HP is the sum of two terms attributable to SAP or R plus an extra term describing the redundant/synergistic contribution to the JTE. All quantities were computed during cardiopulmonary loading induced by -25\uc2\ub0 head-down tilt (HDT) via a multivariate linear regression approach. We found that: (i) the PE of HP decreases during HDT; (ii) the decrease of PE is attributable to a lessening of SE of HP, while the JTE from SAP and R to HP remains constant; (iii) the SE of HP is dominant over the JTE from SAP and R to HP and the CSE of HP given SAP and R is prevailing over the SE of HP due to SAP and R both in supine position and during HDT; (iv) all terms of the decompositions of JTE from SAP and R to HP and SE of HP due to SAP and R were not affected by HDT; (v) the decrease of the SE of HP during HDT was attributed to the reduction of the CSE of HP given SAP and R; (vi) redundancy of SAP and R is prevailing over synergy in the information transferred into HP both in supine position and during HDT, while in the HP information storage synergy and redundancy are more balanced. The approach suggests that the larger complexity of the cardiac control during HDT is unrelated to the baroreflex control and cardiopulmonary reflexes and may be related to central commands and/or modifications of the dynamical properties of the sinus node

    Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

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    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales

    Characterization of the asymmetry of the cardiac and sympathetic arms of the baroreflex from spontaneous variability during incremental head-up tilt

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    Hysteresis of the baroreflex (BR) is the result of the different BR sensitivity (BRS) when arterial pressure (AP) rises or falls. This phenomenon has been poorly studied and almost exclusively examined by applying pharmacological challenges and static approaches disregarding causal relations. This study inspects the asymmetry of the cardiac BR (cBR) and vascular sympathetic BR (sBR) in physiological closed loop conditions from spontaneous fluctuations of physiological variables, namely heart period (HP) and systolic AP (SAP) leading to the estimation of cardiac BRS (cBRS) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and diastolic AP (DAP) leading to the estimation of vascular sympathetic BRS (sBRS). The assessment was carried out in 12 young healthy subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt with table inclination gradually increased from 0 to 60°. Two analytical methods were exploited and compared, namely the sequence (SEQ) and phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) methods. SEQ analysis is based on the detection of joint causal schemes representing the HP and MSNA burst rate delayed responses to spontaneous SAP and DAP modifications, respectively. PRSA analysis averages HP and MSNA burst rate patterns after aligning them according to the direction of SAP and DAP changes, respectively. Since cBRSs were similar when SAP went up or down, hysteresis of cBR was not detected. Conversely, hysteresis of sBR was evident with sBRS more negative when DAP was falling than rising. sBR hysteresis was no longer visible during sympathetic activation induced by the orthostatic challenge. These results were obtained via the SEQ method, while the PRSA technique appeared to be less powerful in describing the BR asymmetry due to the strong association between BRS estimates computed over positive and negative AP variations. This study suggests that cBR and sBR provide different information about the BR control, sBR exhibits more relevant non-linear features that are evident even during physiological changes of AP, and the SEQ method can be fruitfully exploited to characterize the BR hysteresis with promising applications to BR branches different from cBR and sBR.Beatrice De Maria, Vlasta Bari, Beatrice Cairo, Emanuele Vaini, Murray Esler, Elisabeth Lambert, Mathias Baumert, Sergio Cerutti, Laura Dalla Vecchia, and Alberto Port

    Multiscale Decomposition of Cardiovascular and Cardiorespiratory Information Transfer under General Anesthesia∗

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    The analysis of short-term cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory regulation during altered conscious states, such as those induced by anesthesia, requires to employ time series analysis methods able to deal with the multivariate and multiscale nature of the observed dynamics. To meet this requirement, the present study exploits the extension to multiscale analysis of recently proposed information decomposition methods which allow to quantify, from short realizations, the amounts of joint, unique, redundant and synergistic information transferred within multivariate time series. These methods were applied to the spontaneous variability of heart period (HP), systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and respiration (RESP) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft monitored before and after the induction of general anesthesia. We found that, after anesthesia induction, information is processed within the cardiovascular network in a scale-dependent way: at short time scales, a shift from synergistic to redundant information transferred from SAP and RESP to HP occurs, which is associated with enhanced baroreflex-mediated respiratory effects on arterial pressure; at longer time scales, the increased information transfer from SAP to HP denotes an enhancement of the baroreflex coupling related to slow cardiovascular oscillations

    Assessing multiscale complexity of short heart rate variability series through a model-based linear approach

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    We propose a multiscale complexity (MSC) method assessing irregularity in assigned frequency bands and being appropriate for analyzing the short time series. It is grounded on the identification of the coefficients of an autoregressive model, on the computation of the mean position of the poles generating the components of the power spectral density in an assigned frequency band, and on the assessment of its distance from the unit circle in the complex plane. The MSC method was tested on simulations and applied to the short heart period (HP) variability series recorded during graded head-up tilt in 17 subjects (age from 21 to 54 years, median=28 years, 7 females) and during paced breathing protocols in 19 subjects (age from 27 to 35 years, median=31 years, 11 females) to assess the contribution of time scales typical of the cardiac autonomic control, namely in low frequency (LF, from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HF, from 0.15 to 0.5 Hz) bands to the complexity of the cardiac regulation. The proposed MSC technique was compared to a traditional model-free multiscale method grounded on information theory, i.e., multiscale entropy (MSE). The approach suggests that the reduction of HP variability complexity observed during graded head-up tilt is due to a regularization of the HP fluctuations in LF band via a possible intervention of sympathetic control and the decrement of HP variability complexity observed during slow breathing is the result of the regularization of the HP variations in both LF and HF bands, thus implying the action of physiological mechanisms working at time scales even different from that of respiration. MSE did not distinguish experimental conditions at time scales larger than 1. Over a short time series MSC allows a more insightful association between cardiac control complexity and physiological mechanisms modulating cardiac rhythm compared to a more traditional tool such as MSE

    Are Nonlinear Model-Free Conditional Entropy Approaches for the Assessment of Cardiac Control Complexity superior to the Linear Model-based one?

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    We test the hypothesis that the linear model-based (MB) approach for the estimation of conditional entropy (CE) can be utilized to assess the complexity of the cardiac control in healthy individuals

    Correction: Baroreflex sensitivity and outcomes following coronary surgery.

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    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175008.]

    Masked arterial hypertension in a 64-year-old man with primary aldosteronism

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    Purpose Primary aldosteronism is one of the most frequent causes of secondary arterial hypertension, and whether primary aldosteronism is associated with masked hypertension is unknown. Materials and methods We describe a 64-year-old man with a history of hypothyroidism, recurring hypokalaemia, and normal home and office blood pressure values. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring revealed masked hypertension with strikingly high systolic blood pressure variability and typical hypertension-mediated organ damage. Results The patient required gradual escalation of antihypertensive medication to four drugs. During the diagnostic process we identified primary aldosteronism, cobalamin deficiency, severe obstructive sleep apnoea, and low baroreflex sensitivity (1.63 ms/mmHg). Following unilateral adrenalectomy, cobalamin supplementation and continuous positive airway pressure, we observed a spectacular improvement in the patient’s blood pressure control, baroreflex sensitivity (4.82 ms/mmHg) and quality of life. Conclusions We report an unusual case of both masked arterial hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Elevated blood pressure values were masked in home and office measurements by coexisting hypotension which resulted most probably from deteriorated baroreflex sensitivity. Baroreflex sensitivity increased following treatment, including unilateral adrenalectomy. Hypertension can be masked by coexisting baroreceptor dysfunction which may derive from structural but also functional reversible changes
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