45 research outputs found

    Regional variation in hemoglobin distribution among individuals with chronic kidney disease: the ISN International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease (iNET-CKD) Cohorts

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    Introduction: Despite recognized geographic and sex-based differences in hemoglobin in the general population, these factors are typically ignored in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in whom a single therapeutic range for hemoglobin is recommended. We sought to compare the distribution of hemoglobin across international nondialysis CKD populations and evaluate predictors of hemoglobin.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hemoglobin distribution was evaluated in each cohort overall and stratified by sex and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Relationships between candidate predictors and hemoglobin were assessed from linear regression models in each cohort. Estimates were subsequently pooled in a random effects model.Results: A total of 58,613 participants from 21 adult cohorts (median eGFR range of 17–49 ml/min) and 3 pediatric cohorts (median eGFR range of 26–45 ml/min) were included with broad geographic representation. Hemoglobin values varied substantially among the cohorts, overall and within eGFR categories, with particularly low mean hemoglobin observed in women from Asian and African cohorts. Across the eGFR range, women had a lower hemoglobin compared to men, even at an eGFR of 15 ml/min (mean difference 5.3 g/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7–6.9). Lower eGFR, female sex, older age, lower body mass index, and diabetic kidney disease were all independent predictors of a lower hemoglobin value; however, this only explained a minority of variance (R2 7%–44% across cohorts).Conclusion: There are substantial regional differences in hemoglobin distribution among individuals with CKD, and the majority of variance is unexplained by demographics, eGFR, or comorbidities. These findings call for a renewed interest in improving our understanding of hemoglobin determinants in specific CKD populations.</p

    Regional Variation in Hemoglobin Distribution Among Individuals With CKD: the ISN International Network of CKD Cohorts

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    International audienceIntroduction: Despite recognized geographic and sex-based differences in hemoglobin in the general population, these factors are typically ignored in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in whom a single therapeutic range for hemoglobin is recommended. We sought to compare the distribution of hemoglobin across international nondialysis CKD populations and evaluate predictors of hemoglobin. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, hemoglobin distribution was evaluated in each cohort overall and stratified by sex and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Relationships between candidate predictors and hemoglobin were assessed from linear regression models in each cohort. Estimates were subsequently pooled in a random effects model. Results: A total of 58,613 participants from 21 adult cohorts (median eGFR range of 17–49 ml/min) and 3 pediatric cohorts (median eGFR range of 26–45 ml/min) were included with broad geographic representation. Hemoglobin values varied substantially among the cohorts, overall and within eGFR categories, with particularly low mean hemoglobin observed in women from Asian and African cohorts. Across the eGFR range, women had a lower hemoglobin compared to men, even at an eGFR of 15 ml/min (mean difference 5.3 g/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.7–6.9). Lower eGFR, female sex, older age, lower body mass index, and diabetic kidney disease were all independent predictors of a lower hemoglobin value; however, this only explained a minority of variance (R2 7%–44% across cohorts). Conclusion: There are substantial regional differences in hemoglobin distribution among individuals with CKD, and the majority of variance is unexplained by demographics, eGFR, or comorbidities. These findings call for a renewed interest in improving our understanding of hemoglobin determinants in specific CKD populations

    Safety and Effectiveness of Rivaroxaban Versus Warfarin Across GFR Levels in Atrial Fibrillation: A Population-Based Study in Australia and Canada

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    Rationale &amp; Objective: The benefit–risk profile of rivaroxaban versus warfarin for atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with chronic kidney disease is uncertain. We compared rivaroxaban with warfarin across the range of kidney function in adults with AF. Study Design: Multicenter retrospective cohort. Setting &amp; Participants: Adults with AF and a measure of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); using administrative data from 5 jurisdictions across Australia and Canada (2011-2018). Kidney function was categorized as eGFR ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients receiving dialysis and kidney transplant recipients were excluded. Exposures: New dispensation of either rivaroxaban or warfarin. Outcomes: Composite (1) effectiveness outcome (all-cause death, ischemic stroke, or transient ischemic attack) and (2) major bleeding events (intracranial, gastrointestinal, or other) at 1 year. Analytical Approach: Cox proportional hazards models accounting for propensity score matching were performed independently in each jurisdiction and then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Results: 55,568 patients (27,784 rivaroxaban–warfarin user matched pairs; mean age 74 years, 46% female, 33.5% with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2) experienced a total of 4,733 (8.5%) effectiveness and 1,144 (2.0%) bleeding events. Compared to warfarin, rivaroxaban was associated with greater or similar effectiveness across a broad range of kidney function (pooled HRs of 0.72 [95% CI, 0.66-0.78], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.58-1.06], 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.87], and 0.78 [95% CI, 0.62-0.99]) for eGFR ≥60, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively). Rivaroxaban was also associated with similar risk of major bleeding across all eGFR categories (pooled HRs of 0.75 [95% CI, 0.56-1.00], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.79-1.30], 0.87 [95% CI, 0.66-1.15], and 0.63 [95% CI, 0.37-1.09], respectively). Limitations: Unmeasured treatment selection bias and residual confounding. Conclusions: In adults with AF, rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was associated with lower or similar risk of all-cause death, ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack and similar risk of bleeding across a broad range of kidney function. Plain-Language Summary: This real-world study involved a large cohort of 55,568 adults with atrial fibrillation from 5 jurisdictions across Australia and Canada. It showed that the favorable safety (bleeding) and effectiveness (stroke or death) profile of rivaroxaban compared with warfarin was consistent across different levels of kidney function. This study adds important safety data on the use of rivaroxaban in patients with reduced kidney function, including those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 in whom the risks and benefits of rivaroxaban use is most uncertain. Overall, the study supports the use of rivaroxaban as a safe and effective alternative to warfarin for atrial fibrillation across differing levels of kidney function

    Change in albuminuria and subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease: an individual participant-level consortium meta-analysis of observational studies

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    Background: Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of chronic kidney disease is strongly supported by biological plausibility, but empirical evidence to support its validity in epidemiological studies is lacking. We aimed to assess the consistency of the association between change in albuminuria and risk of end-stage kidney disease in a large individual participant-level meta-analysis of observational studies. Methods: In this meta-analysis, we collected individual-level data from eligible cohorts in the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium (CKD-PC) with data on serum creatinine and change in albuminuria and more than 50 events on outcomes of interest. Cohort data were eligible if participants were aged 18 years or older, they had a repeated measure of albuminuria during an elapsed period of 8 months to 4 years, subsequent end-stage kidney disease or mortality follow-up data, and the cohort was active during this consortium phase. We extracted participant-level data and quantified percentage change in albuminuria, measured as change in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) or urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR), during baseline periods of 1, 2, and 3 years. Our primary outcome of interest was development of end-stage kidney disease after a baseline period of 2 years. We defined an end-stage kidney disease event as initiation of kidney replacement therapy. We quantified associations of percentage change in albuminuria with subsequent end-stage kidney disease using Cox regression in each cohort, followed by random-effects meta-analysis. We further adjusted for regression dilution to account for imprecision in the estimation of albuminuria at the participant level. We did multiple subgroup analyses, and also repeated our analyses using participant-level data from 14 clinical trials, including nine clinical trials not in CKD-PC. Findings: Between July, 2015, and June, 2018, we transferred and analysed data from 28 cohorts in the CKD-PC, which included 693 816 individuals (557 583 [80%] with diabetes). Data for 675 904 individuals and 7461 end-stage kidney disease events were available for our primary outcome analysis. Change in ACR was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for end-stage kidney disease after a 30% decrease in ACR during a baseline period of 2 years was 0·83 (95% CI 0·74–0·94), decreasing to 0·78 (0·66–0·92) after further adjustment for regression dilution. Adjusted HRs were fairly consistent across cohorts and subgroups (ie, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes, and sex), but the association was somewhat stronger among participants with higher baseline ACR than among those with lower baseline ACR (pinteraction<0·0001). In individuals with baseline ACR of 300 mg/g or higher, a 30% decrease in ACR over 2 years was estimated to confer a more than 1% absolute reduction in 10-year risk of end-stage kidney disease, even at early stages of chronic kidney disease. Results were generally similar when we used change in PCR and when study populations from clinical trials were assessed. Interpretation: Change in albuminuria was consistently associated with subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease across a range of cohorts, lending support to the use of change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for end-stage kidney disease in clinical trials of progression of chronic kidney disease in the setting of increased albuminuria

    A collaborative, individual-level analysis compared longitudinal outcomes across the International Network of Chronic Kidney Disease (iNETCKD) cohorts.

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    Rates of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression, end stage kidney disease (ESKD), all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular (CVD) events among individuals with CKD vary widely across countries. Well-characterized demographic, comorbidity, and laboratory markers captured for prospective cohorts may explain, in part, such differences. To investigate whether core characteristics of individuals with CKD explain differences in rates of outcomes, we conducted an individual-level analysis of eight studies that are part of iNET-CKD, an international network of CKD cohort studies. Overall, the rate of CKD progression was 40 events/1000 person-year (95% confidence interval 39 - 41), 28 (27 - 29) for ESKD, 41 (40 - 42) for death, and 29 (28 - 30) for CVD events. However, standardized rates were highly heterogeneous across studies (over 92.5%). Interactions by study group on the association between baseline characteristics and outcomes were then identified. For example, the adjusted hazard ratio for CKD progression was 0.44 (95% confidence interval 0.35 - 0.56) for women vs. men among the Japanese (CKD-JAC), while it was 0.66 (0.59 - 0.75) among the Uruguayan (NRHP). The adjusted hazard ratio for ESKD was 2.02 (95% CI 1.88 - 2.17) per 10 units lower baseline eGFR among Americans (CRIC), while it was 3.01 (2.57 - 3.53) among Canadians (CanPREDDICT) (significant interaction for comparisons across all studies). The risks of CKD progression, ESKD, death, and CVD vary across countries even after accounting for the distributions of age, sex, comorbidities, and laboratory markers. Thus, our findings support the need for a better understanding of specific factors in different populations that explain this variation

    Adiposity and risk of decline in glomerular filtration rate: meta-analysis of individual participant data in a global consortium

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    OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the associations between adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and with all cause mortality. DESIGN:Individual participant data meta-analysis. SETTING:Cohorts from 40 countries with data collected between 1970 and 2017. PARTICIPANTS:Adults in 39 general population cohorts (n=5 459 014), of which 21 (n=594 496) had data on waist circumference; six cohorts with high cardiovascular risk (n=84 417); and 18 cohorts with chronic kidney disease (n=91 607). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:GFR decline (estimated GFR decline ≥40%, initiation of kidney replacement therapy or estimated GFR <10 mL/min/1.73 m2) and all cause mortality. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up of eight years, 246 607 (5.6%) individuals in the general population cohorts had GFR decline (18 118 (0.4%) end stage kidney disease events) and 782 329 (14.7%) died. Adjusting for age, sex, race, and current smoking, the hazard ratios for GFR decline comparing body mass indices 30, 35, and 40 with body mass index 25 were 1.18 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 1.27), 1.69 (1.51 to 1.89), and 2.02 (1.80 to 2.27), respectively. Results were similar in all subgroups of estimated GFR. Associations weakened after adjustment for additional comorbidities, with respective hazard ratios of 1.03 (0.95 to 1.11), 1.28 (1.14 to 1.44), and 1.46 (1.28 to 1.67). The association between body mass index and death was J shaped, with the lowest risk at body mass index of 25. In the cohorts with high cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease (mean follow-up of six and four years, respectively), risk associations between higher body mass index and GFR decline were weaker than in the general population, and the association between body mass index and death was also J shaped, with the lowest risk between body mass index 25 and 30. In all cohort types, associations between higher waist circumference and higher waist-to-height ratio with GFR decline were similar to that of body mass index; however, increased risk of death was not associated with lower waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio, as was seen with body mass index. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio are independent risk factors for GFR decline and death in individuals who have normal or reduced levels of estimated GFR

    Considerable international variation exists in blood pressure control and antihypertensive prescription patterns in chronic kidney disease

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    Although blood pressure control is a major goal in chronic kidney disease, no worldwide overview of either its achievement or antihypertensive prescriptions is currently available. To evaluate this we compared crude prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure among 17 cohort studies, including 34 602 individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and treated hypertension across four continents, and estimated observed to expected prevalence ratios, adjusted for potential confounders. Crude prevalence of blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or more varied from 28% to 61% and of blood pressure of 130/80 or more from 54% to 84%. Adjusted prevalence ratios indicated poorer hypertension control than expected in cohorts from European countries, India, and Uruguay, and better control in patients from North American and high-income Asian countries. Four antihypertensive drug classes or more were prescribed to more than 30% of participants in North American and some European cohorts, but this practice was less common elsewhere. Renin angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors were the most common antihypertensive drugs, prescribed for 54% to 91% of cohort participants. Differences for other drug classes were much stronger, ranging from 11% to 79% for diuretics, 22% to 70% for beta-blockers, and 27% to 75% for calcium-channel blockers. The confounders studied explain only a part of the international variation in blood pressure control among individuals with chronic kidney disease. Thus, considerable heterogeneity in prescription patterns worldwide calls for further investigation into the impact of different approaches on patient outcomes

    Predicting kidney failure risk after acute kidney injury among people receiving nephrology clinic care

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We are grateful to Dr Nadia Zalunardo for her comments on this study. FUNDING Dr Sawhney received funding from a research training fellowship from the Wellcome Trust to conduct this study (102729/ Z/13/Z).Peer reviewedPublisher PD
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