306 research outputs found

    Patient-Level Pooled Analysis of Ultrasound Renal Denervation in the Sham-Controlled RADIANCE II, RADIANCE-HTN SOLO, and RADIANCE-HTN TRIO Trials

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    IMPORTANCE: Ultrasound renal denervation (uRDN) was shown to lower blood pressure (BP) in patients with uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). Establishing the magnitude and consistency of the uRDN effect across the HTN spectrum is clinically important. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the effectiveness and safety of uRDN vs a sham procedure from individual patient-level pooled data across uRDN trials including either patients with mild to moderate HTN on a background of no medications or with HTN resistant to standardized triple-combination therapy. DATA SOURCES: A Study of the ReCor Medical Paradise System in Clinical Hypertension (RADIANCE-HTN SOLO and TRIO) and A Study of the ReCor Medical Paradise System in Stage II Hypertension (RADIANCE II) trials. STUDY SELECTION: Trials with similar designs, standardized operational implementation (medication standardization and blinding of both patients and physicians to treatment assignment), and follow-up. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Pooled analysis using individual patient-level data using linear regression models to compare uRDN with sham across the trials. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was baseline-adjusted change in 2-month daytime ambulatory systolic BP (dASBP) between groups. RESULTS: A total of 506 patients were randomized in the 3 studies (uRDN, 293; sham, 213; mean [SD] age, 54.1 [9.3]; 354 male [70.0%]). After a 1-month medication stabilization period, dASBP was similar between the groups (mean [SD], uRDN, 150.3‚ÄČ[9.2] mm Hg; sham, 150.8‚ÄČ[10.5] mm Hg). At 2 months, dASBP decreased by 8.5 mm Hg to mean (SD) 141.8‚ÄČ(13.8) mm Hg among patients treated with uRDN and by 2.9 mm Hg to 147.9‚ÄČ(14.6) mm Hg among patients treated with a sham procedure (mean difference, -5.9; 95% CI, -8.1 to -3.8 mm Hg; P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ.001 in favor of uRDN). BP decreases from baseline with uRDN vs sham were consistent across trials and across BP parameters (office SBP: -10.4 mm Hg vs -3.4 mm Hg; mean difference, -6.4 mm Hg; 95% CI, -9.1 to -3.6 mm Hg; home SBP: -8.4 mm Hg vs -1.4 mm Hg; mean difference, -6.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, -8.7 to -4.9 mm Hg, respectively). The BP reductions with uRDN vs sham were consistent across prespecified subgroups. Independent predictors of a larger BP response to uRDN were higher baseline BP and heart rate and the presence of orthostatic hypertension. No differences in early safety end points were observed between groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Results of this patient-level pooled analysis suggest that BP reductions with uRDN were consistent across HTN severity in sham-controlled trials designed with a 2-month primary end point to standardize medications across randomized groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02649426 and NCT03614260

    Real-world experience with ultrasound renal denervation utilizing home blood pressure monitoring:the Global Paradise System registry study design

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    Background:¬†Hypertension is a major public health issue due to its association with cardiovascular disease risk. Despite the availability of effective antihypertensive drugs, rates of blood pressure (BP) control remain suboptimal. Renal denervation (RDN) has emerged as an effective non-pharmacological, device-based treatment option for patients with hypertension. The multicenter, single-arm, observational Global Paradise‚ĄĘ System (GPS) registry has been designed to examine the long-term safety and effectiveness of ultrasound RDN (uRDN) with the Paradise System in a large population of patients with hypertension.¬†Methods:¬†The study aims to enroll up to 3000 patients undergoing uRDN in routine clinical practice. Patients will be recruited over a 4-year period and followed for 5¬†years (at 3, 6, and 12¬†months after the uRDN procedure and annually thereafter). Standardized home BP measurements will be taken every 3¬†months with automatic upload to the cloud. Office and ambulatory BP and adverse events will be collected as per routine clinical practice. Quality-of-Life questionnaires will be used to capture patient-reported outcomes.¬†Conclusions:¬†This observational registry will provide real-world information on the safety and effectiveness of uRDN in a large population of patients treated during routine clinical practice, and also allow for a better understanding of responses in prespecified subgroups. The focus on home BP in this registry is expected to improve completeness of long-term follow-up and provide unique insights into BP over time.¬†Graphical abstract:¬†Global Paradise System registry study design. ABP, ambulatory blood pressure; BP, blood pressure; FU, follow-up; M, month; OBP, office blood pressure. [Figure not available: see fulltext.].</p

    Renal denervation in the management of hypertension in adults. A clinical consensus statement of the ESC Council on Hypertension and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI)

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    Since the publication of the 2018 European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (ESC/ESH) Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension, several high-quality studies, including randomised, sham-controlled trials on catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) were published, confirming both the blood pressure (BP)-lowering efficacy and safety of radiofrequency and ultrasound RDN in a broad range of patients with hypertension, including resistant hypertension. A clinical consensus document by the ESC Council on Hypertension and the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) on RDN in the management of hypertension was considered necessary to inform clinical practice. This expert group proposes that RDN is an adjunct treatment option in uncontrolled resistant hypertension, confirmed by ambulatory BP measurements, despite best efforts at lifestyle and pharmacological interventions. RDN may also be used in patients who are unable to tolerate antihypertensive medications in the long term. A shared decision-making process is a key feature and preferably includes a patient who is well informed on the benefits and limitations of the procedure. The decision-making process should take (i) the patient's global cardiovascular (CV) risk and/or (ii) the presence of hypertension-mediated organ damage or CV complications into account. Multidisciplinary hypertension teams involving hypertension experts and interventionalists evaluate the indication and facilitate the RDN procedure. Interventionalists require expertise in renal interventions and specific training in RDN procedures. Centres performing these procedures require the skills and resources to deal with potential complications. Future research is needed to address open questions and investigate the impact of BP-lowering with RDN on clinical outcomes and potential clinical indications beyond hypertension

    Cluster analysis of angiotensin biomarkers to identify antihypertensive drug treatment in population studies

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    Background: The recent progress in molecular biology generates an increasing interest in investigating molecular biomarkers as markers of response to treatments. The present work is motivated by a study, where the objective was to explore the potential of the molecular biomarkers of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) to identify the undertaken antihypertensive treatments in the general population. Population-based studies offer an opportunity to assess the effectiveness of treatments in real-world scenarios. However, lack of quality documentation, especially when electronic health record linkage is unavailable, leads to inaccurate reporting and classification bias. Method: We present a machine learning clustering technique to determine the potential of measured RAAS biomarkers for the identification of undertaken treatments in the general population. The biomarkers were simultaneously determined through a novel mass-spectrometry analysis in 800 participants of the Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study with documented antihypertensive treatments. We assessed the agreement, sensitivity and specificity of the resulting clusters against known treatment types. Through the lasso penalized regression, we identified clinical characteristics associated with the biomarkers, accounting for the effects of cluster and treatment classifications. Results: We identified three well-separated clusters: cluster 1 (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ444) preferentially including individuals not receiving RAAS-targeting drugs; cluster 2 (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ235) identifying angiotensin type 1 receptor blockers (ARB) users (weighted kappa őļw‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ74%; sensitivity‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ73%; specificity‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ83%); and cluster 3 (n‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ121) well discriminating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) users (őļw‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ81%; sensitivity‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ55%; specificity‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ90%). Individuals in clusters 2 and 3 had higher frequency of diabetes as well as higher fasting glucose and BMI levels. Age, sex and kidney function were strong predictors of the RAAS biomarkers independently of the cluster structure. Conclusions: Unsupervised clustering of angiotensin-based biomarkers is a viable technique to identify individuals on specific antihypertensive treatments, pointing to a potential application of the biomarkers as useful clinical diagnostic tools even outside of a controlled clinical setting

    Global variations in diabetes mellitus based on fasting glucose and haemogloblin A1c

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    Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but may identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening had elevated FPG, HbA1c, or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardised proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed, and detected in survey screening, ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the agestandardised proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global gap in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance.peer-reviewe

    2023 ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension Endorsed by the European Renal Association (ERA) and the International Society of Hypertension (ISH)

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    DOCUMENT REVIEWERS: Luis Alcocer (Mexico), Christina Antza (Greece), Mustafa Arici (Turkey), Eduardo Barbosa (Brazil), Adel Berbari (Lebanon), Luís Bronze (Portugal), John Chalmers (Australia), Tine De Backer (Belgium), Alejandro de la Sierra (Spain), Kyriakos Dimitriadis (Greece), Dorota Drozdz (Poland), Béatrice Duly-Bouhanick (France), Brent M. Egan (USA), Serap Erdine (Turkey), Claudio Ferri (Italy), Slavomira Filipova (Slovak Republic), Anthony Heagerty (UK), Michael Hecht Olsen (Denmark), Dagmara Hering (Poland), Sang Hyun Ihm (South Korea), Uday Jadhav (India), Manolis Kallistratos (Greece), Kazuomi Kario (Japan), Vasilios Kotsis (Greece), Adi Leiba (Israel), Patricio López-Jaramillo (Colombia), Hans-Peter Marti (Norway), Terry McCormack (UK), Paolo Mulatero (Italy), Dike B. Ojji (Nigeria), Sungha Park (South Korea), Priit Pauklin (Estonia), Sabine Perl (Austria), Arman Postadzhian (Bulgaria), Aleksander Prejbisz (Poland), Venkata Ram (India), Ramiro Sanchez (Argentina), Markus Schlaich (Australia), Alta Schutte (Australia), Cristina Sierra (Spain), Sekib Sokolovic (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Jonas Spaak (Sweden), Dimitrios Terentes-Printzios (Greece), Bruno Trimarco (Italy), Thomas Unger (The Netherlands), Bert-Jan van den Born (The Netherlands), Anna Vachulova (Slovak Republic), Agostino Virdis (Italy), Jiguang Wang (China), Ulrich Wenzel (Germany), Paul Whelton (USA), Jiri Widimsky (Czech Republic), Jacek Wolf (Poland), Grégoire Wuerzner (Switzerland), Eugene Yang (USA), Yuqing Zhang (China).</p

    Unilaterally Selective Adrenal Vein Sampling for Identification of Surgically Curable Primary Aldosteronism

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    Background: Adrenal venous sampling is recommended for the identification of unilateral surgically curable primary aldosteronism but is often clinically useless, owing to failed bilateral adrenal vein cannulation. Objectives: To investigate if only unilaterally selective adrenal vein sampling studies can allow the identification of the responsible adrenal. Methods: Among 1625 patients consecutively submitted to adrenal vein sampling in tertiary referral centers, we selected those with selective adrenal vein sampling results in at least one side and surgically cured unilateral primary aldosteronism, used as gold reference. The accuracy of different values of the relative aldosterone secretion index (RASI), which estimates the amount of aldosterone produced in each adrenal gland corrected for catheterization selectivity, was examined. Results: We found prominent differences in RASI values distribution between patients with and without unilateral primary aldosteronism. The diagnostic accuracy of RASI values estimated by the area under receiver operating characteristic curves was 0.714 and 0.855, respectively, in the responsible and the contralateral side; RASI values >2.55 and ‚ȧ0.96 on the former and the latter side furnished the highest accuracy for detection of surgically cured unilateral primary aldosteronism. Moreover, in the patients without unilateral primary aldosteronism, only 20% and 16% had RASI values ‚ȧ0.96 and >2.55. Conclusions: With the strength of a large real-life data set and use of the gold reference entailing an unambiguous diagnosis of unilateral primary aldosteronism, these results indicate the feasibility of identifying unilateral primary aldosteronism using unilaterally selective adrenal vein sampling results. Registration: URL: https://www. Clinicaltrials: gov; Unique identifier: NCT01234220

    Endovascular Ultrasound Renal Denervation to Treat Hypertension: The RADIANCE II Randomized Clinical Trial

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    IMPORTANCE: Two initial sham-controlled trials demonstrated that ultrasound renal denervation decreases blood pressure (BP) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension and hypertension that is resistant to treatment. OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and safety of ultrasound renal denervation without the confounding influence of antihypertensive medications in patients with hypertension. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Sham-controlled, randomized clinical trial with patients and outcome assessors blinded to treatment assignment that was conducted between January 14, 2019, and March 25, 2022, at 37 centers in the US and 24 centers in Europe, with randomization stratified by center. Patients aged 18 years to 75 years with hypertension (seated office systolic BP [SBP] ‚Č•140 mm Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] ‚Č•90 mm Hg despite taking up to 2 antihypertensive medications) were eligible if they had an ambulatory SBP/DBP of 135/85 mm Hg or greater and an SBP/DBP less than 170/105 mm Hg after a 4-week washout of their medications. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 40 mL/min/1.73 m2 or greater and with suitable renal artery anatomy were randomized 2:1 to undergo ultrasound renal denervation or a sham procedure. Patients were to abstain from antihypertensive medications until the 2-month follow-up unless prespecified BP criteria were exceeded and were associated with clinical symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Ultrasound renal denervation vs a sham procedure. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary efficacy outcome was the mean change in daytime ambulatory SBP at 2 months. The primary safety composite outcome of major adverse events included death, kidney failure, and major embolic, vascular, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and hypertensive events at 30 days and renal artery stenosis greater than 70% detected at 6 months. The secondary outcomes included mean change in 24-hour ambulatory SBP, home SBP, office SBP, and all DBP parameters at 2 months. RESULTS: Among 1038 eligible patients, 150 were randomized to ultrasound renal denervation and 74 to a sham procedure (mean age, 55 years [SD, 9.3 years]; 28.6% female; and 16.1% self-identified as Black or African American). The reduction in daytime ambulatory SBP was greater with ultrasound renal denervation (mean, -7.9 mm Hg [SD, 11.6 mm Hg]) vs the sham procedure (mean, -1.8 mm Hg [SD, 9.5 mm Hg]) (baseline-adjusted between-group difference, -6.3 mm Hg [95% CI, -9.3 to -3.2 mm Hg], P‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ.001), with a consistent effect of ultrasound renal denervation throughout the 24-hour circadian cycle. Among 7 secondary BP outcomes, 6 were significantly improved with ultrasound renal denervation vs the sham procedure. No major adverse events were reported in either group. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In patients with hypertension, ultrasound renal denervation reduced daytime ambulatory SBP at 2 months in the absence of antihypertensive medications vs a sham procedure without postprocedural major adverse events. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03614260

    Diminishing benefits of urban living for children and adolescents’ growth and development

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    Optimal growth and development in childhood and adolescence is crucial for lifelong health and well-being1‚Äď6. Here we used data from 2,325 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight from 71 million participants, to report the height and body-mass index (BMI) of children and adolescents aged 5‚Äď19 years on the basis of rural and urban place of residence in 200 countries and territories from 1990 to 2020. In 1990, children and adolescents residing in cities were taller than their rural counterparts in all but a few high-income countries. By 2020, the urban height advantage became smaller in most countries, and in many high-income western countries it reversed into a small urban-based disadvantage. The exception was for boys in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in some countries in Oceania, south Asia and the region of central Asia, Middle East and north Africa. In these countries, successive cohorts of boys from rural places either did not gain height or possibly became shorter, and hence fell further behind their urban peers. The difference between the age-standardized mean BMI of children in urban and rural areas was <1.1 kg m‚Äď2 in the vast majority of countries. Within this small range, BMI increased slightly more in cities than in rural areas, except in south Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and some countries in central and eastern Europe. Our results show that in much of the world, the growth and developmental advantages of living in cities have diminished in the twenty-first century, whereas in much of sub-Saharan Africa they have amplified

    Global variation in diabetes diagnosis and prevalence based on fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c

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    : Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are both used to diagnose diabetes, but these measurements can identify different people as having diabetes. We used data from 117 population-based studies and quantified, in different world regions, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes, and whether those who were previously undiagnosed and detected as having diabetes in survey screening, had elevated FPG, HbA1c or both. We developed prediction equations for estimating the probability that a person without previously diagnosed diabetes, and at a specific level of FPG, had elevated HbA1c, and vice versa. The age-standardized proportion of diabetes that was previously undiagnosed and detected in survey screening ranged from 30% in the high-income western region to 66% in south Asia. Among those with screen-detected diabetes with either test, the age-standardized proportion who had elevated levels of both FPG and HbA1c was 29-39% across regions; the remainder had discordant elevation of FPG or HbA1c. In most low- and middle-income regions, isolated elevated HbA1c was more common than isolated elevated FPG. In these regions, the use of FPG alone may delay diabetes diagnosis and underestimate diabetes prevalence. Our prediction equations help allocate finite resources for measuring HbA1c to reduce the global shortfall in diabetes diagnosis and surveillance
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