3,866 research outputs found

    Comments on the nonpharmaceutical interventions in New York City and Chicago during the 1918 flu pandemic

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    This commentary was originally published in CIDRAP News and it is here reported almost verbatim to allow divulgation through open access. The Editorial summarizes John Barry's concerns about the value of accurate historical reporting and its implications in public policy determination. This short abstract was written by the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Translational Medicine to introduce the Editorial

    A rapid assessment of district health systems in six countries of the WHO African regions

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    Objectives: This paper reviews the adequacy of inputs and processes at district level to support outputs and outcomes of service delivery at district level using a rapid assessment. The outputs included in this study are those considered essential for the attainment of the Health related Millennium Development Goals(MDGs).Data sources: A questionnaire based rapid District Health Systems assessment was conducted among six African countries during the year 2007.Study selections: The study took place in a random sample of six out of 19 English speaking countries of the WHO African region. These countries are Ghana, Liberia, Namibia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Uganda.Data extraction: The data was extracted from the questionnaires, entered and analysed in Excel spreadsheet.Data synthesis: In spite of the variability in quality and completeness of reporting on the selected parameters, this paper does indicate that according to country norms and standards, the inputs and processes are insufficient to lead to acceptable outputs and outcomes, especially those related to the MDGs. An important point to note is that comparability across countries is made on the basis of individual country norms and standards. Implicit in this assessment is that country norms and standards are reasonable and are appropriate for the attainment of the MDGs. However reasonable the country norms and standard are, it is unlikely that the low resource base as well as weak organisational and managerial capacities in most countries will support effectively the attainment of the MDGs.Conclusion: Most countries manage to offer the essential health services at all levels of care despite the relatively low level of inputs. However, their level of quality and equity is debatable. The general trend is that provision of the essential health services is more at the higher levels of care prompting concerns for the populations served at lower levels of care. There is also a tendency to have wide variations in the performance of service delivery geographically as well as at the different levels of the health systems. This paper recommends further exploration of the impactof focusing on improving quality of existing health services while increasing quantity of service delivery points to achieve higher coverage of essential health services

    Efficacy of nonselective optogenetic control of the medial septum over hippocampal oscillations: the influence of speed and implications for cognitive enhancement

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    Optogenetics holds great promise for both the dissection of neural circuits and the evaluation of theories centered on the temporal organizing properties of oscillations that underpin cognition. To date, no studies have examined the efficacy of optogenetic stimulation for altering hippocampal oscillations in freely moving wild-type rats, or how these alterations would affect performance on behavioral tasks. Here, we used an AAV virus to express ChR2 in the medial septum (MS) of wild-type rats, and optically stimulated septal neurons at 6 Hz and 30 Hz. We measured the corresponding effects of these stimulations on the oscillations of the MS and hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 in three different contexts: (1) With minimal movement while the rats sat in a confined chamber; (2) Explored a novel open field; and (3) Learned and performed a T-maze behavioral task. While control yellow light stimulation did not affect oscillations, 6-Hz blue light septal stimulations altered hippocampal theta oscillations in a manner that depended on the animal's mobility and speed. While the 30 Hz blue light septal stimulations only altered theta frequency in CA1 while the rat had limited mobility, it robustly increased the amplitude of hippocampal signals at 30 Hz in both regions in all three recording contexts. We found that animals were more likely to make a correct choice during Day 1 of T-maze training during both MS stimulation protocols than during control stimulation, and that improved performance was independent of theta frequency alterations

    Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics

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    There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval, integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the informatics advances in saliva diagnostics made possible by the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart

    Secondary injury and inflammation after intracerebral haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis of molecular markers in patient brain tissue

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    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory responses to intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are potential therapeutic targets. We aimed to quantify molecular markers of inflammation in human brain tissue after ICH compared with controls using meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched OVID MEDLINE (1946–) and Embase (1974–) in June 2020 for studies that reported any measure of a molecular marker of inflammation in brain tissue from five or more adults after ICH. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (mNOS; mNOS score 0–9; 9 indicates low bias), extracted aggregate data, and used random effects meta-analysis to pool associations of molecules where more than two independent case–control studies reported the same outcome and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis to identify over-represented biological processes in pooled sets of differentially expressed molecules (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews ID: CRD42018110204). RESULTS: Of 7501 studies identified, 44 were included: 6 were case series and 38 were case–control studies (median mNOS score 4, IQR 3–5). We extracted data from 21 491 analyses of 20 951 molecules reported by 38 case–control studies. Only one molecule (interleukin-1β protein) was quantified in three case–control studies (127 ICH cases vs 41 ICH-free controls), which found increased abundance of interleukin-1β protein after ICH (corrected standardised mean difference 1.74, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.21, p=0.036, I(2)=46%). Processes associated with interleukin-1β signalling were enriched in sets of molecules that were more abundant after ICH. CONCLUSION: Interleukin-1β abundance is increased after ICH, but analyses of other inflammatory molecules after ICH lack replication. Interleukin-1β pathway modulators may optimise inflammatory responses to ICH and merit testing in clinical trials

    Laser cooling of a diatomic molecule

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    It has been roughly three decades since laser cooling techniques produced ultracold atoms, leading to rapid advances in a vast array of fields. Unfortunately laser cooling has not yet been extended to molecules because of their complex internal structure. However, this complexity makes molecules potentially useful for many applications. For example, heteronuclear molecules possess permanent electric dipole moments which lead to long-range, tunable, anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. The combination of the dipole-dipole interaction and the precise control over molecular degrees of freedom possible at ultracold temperatures make ultracold molecules attractive candidates for use in quantum simulation of condensed matter systems and quantum computation. Also ultracold molecules may provide unique opportunities for studying chemical dynamics and for tests of fundamental symmetries. Here we experimentally demonstrate laser cooling of the molecule strontium monofluoride (SrF). Using an optical cycling scheme requiring only three lasers, we have observed both Sisyphus and Doppler cooling forces which have substantially reduced the transverse temperature of a SrF molecular beam. Currently the only technique for producing ultracold molecules is by binding together ultracold alkali atoms through Feshbach resonance or photoassociation. By contrast, different proposed applications for ultracold molecules require a variety of molecular energy-level structures. Our method provides a new route to ultracold temperatures for molecules. In particular it bridges the gap between ultracold temperatures and the ~1 K temperatures attainable with directly cooled molecules (e.g. cryogenic buffer gas cooling or decelerated supersonic beams). Ultimately our technique should enable the production of large samples of molecules at ultracold temperatures for species that are chemically distinct from bialkalis.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figure

    Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma as a rare cause of ascites in a young man: a case report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is a rare but distinct variant of fibrosarcoma that not only presents as a deep-seated mass on the limbs and neck but can also occur adjacent to the fascia or peritoneum, as well as the trunk and spine. We report the case of an intra-abdominal sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, which to best of the authors' knowledge has not been described previously. The patient discussed here developed lung metastases but is still alive 1-year post-diagnosis.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>A 29-year-old man presented with a 2-week history of progressive abdominal distension and pain and was found to have marked ascites. A full liver screen was unremarkable with abdominal and chest computed tomography scans only confirming ascites. After a diagnostic laparotomy, biopsies were taken from the greater omentum and peritoneal nodules. Histopathology revealed a malignant tumour composed of sheets and cords of small round cells set in collagenized stroma. After further molecular investigation at the Mayo Clinic, USA, the diagnosis of a high-grade sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma was confirmed.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is an extremely rare tumour, which is often difficult to diagnose and which few pathologists have encountered. This case is particularly unusual because of the intra-abdominal origin of the tumour. Owing to the rarity of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma, there is no clear evidence regarding the prognosis of such a tumour, although sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma is able to metastasize many years post-presentation. It is important that physicians and pathologists are aware of this unusual tumour.</p