305 research outputs found

    Hepatitis B virus-infection related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. Clinical manifestations and the effect of antiviral therapy: A review of the literature

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    Objective: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, about 20% of the patients develop extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV), polyarteritis nodosa, non-rheumatoid arthritis, glomerulonephritis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This review analyzed literature data on clinical manifestations of HBV-related CV and the impact of antiviral therapy with analoques nucleotide. Methods: A PubMed search was performed to select eligible studies in the literature, up to July 2022. Results: Some studies have analyzed clinical manifestations in HBV-related CV and have investigated the role of antiviral therapy with nucleotides analogues (NAs). Clinical manifestations of CV vary from mild to moderate (purpura, asthenia and arthralgias) to severe (leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, and non-Hodking lymphoma). NAs therapy leads to suppression of HBV-DNA; therefore, it is capable of producing clinical response in the majority of patients with mild to moderate symptoms. Conclusion: Antiviral therapy with NAs is the first choice for HBV suppression and control of mild to moderate disease. In severe vasculitis (glomerulonephritis, progressive peripheral neuropathy and leg ulcers), rituximab alone or with plasma-exchange is always indicated in combination with antiviral therapy

    Expanding horizons of cross-linguistic research on reading: The Multilingual Eye-movement Corpus (MECO)

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    Scientific studies of language behavior need to grapple with a large diversity of languages in the world and, for reading, a further variability in writing systems. Yet, the ability to form meaningful theories of reading is contingent on the availability of cross-linguistic behavioral data. This paper offers new insights into aspects of reading behavior that are shared and those that vary systematically across languages through an investigation of eye-tracking data from 13 languages recorded during text reading. We begin with reporting a bibliometric analysis of eye-tracking studies showing that the current empirical base is insufficient for cross-linguistic comparisons. We respond to this empirical lacuna by presenting the Multilingual Eye-Movement Corpus (MECO), the product of an international multi-lab collaboration. We examine which behavioral indices differentiate between reading in written languages, and which measures are stable across languages. One of the findings is that readers of different languages vary considerably in their skipping rate (i.e., the likelihood of not fixating on a word even once) and that this variability is explained by cross-linguistic differences in word length distributions. In contrast, if readers do not skip a word, they tend to spend a similar average time viewing it. We outline the implications of these findings for theories of reading. We also describe prospective uses of the publicly available MECO data, and its further development plans

    Text reading in English as a second language: Evidence from the Multilingual Eye-Movements Corpus

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    Research into second language (L2) reading is an exponentially growing field. Yet, it still has a relatively short supply of comparable, ecologically valid data from readers representing a variety of first languages (L1). This article addresses this need by presenting a new data resource called MECO L2 (Multilingual Eye Movements Corpus), a rich behavioral eye-tracking record of text reading in English as an L2 among 543 university student speakers of 12 different L1s. MECO L2 includes a test battery of component skills of reading and allows for a comparison of the participants' reading performance in their L1 and L2. This data resource enables innovative large-scale cross-sample analyses of predictors of L2 reading fluency and comprehension. We first introduce the design and structure of the MECO L2 resource, along with reliability estimates and basic descriptive analyses. Then, we illustrate the utility of MECO L2 by quantifying contributions of four sources to variability in L2 reading proficiency proposed in prior literature: reading fluency and comprehension in L1, proficiency in L2 component skills of reading, extralinguistic factors, and the L1 of the readers. Major findings included (a) a fundamental contrast between the determinants of L2 reading fluency versus comprehension accuracy, and (b) high within-participant consistency in the real-time strategy of reading in L1 and L2. We conclude by reviewing the implications of these findings to theories of L2 acquisition and outline further directions in which the new data resource may support L2 reading research

    Elastin MIcrofibriL INterfacer1 (EMILIN-1) is an alternative prosurvival VLA-4 ligand in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    CD49d, the α4 chain of the VLA-4 integrin, is a negative prognosticator in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with a key role in CLL cell-microenvironment interactions mainly occurring via its ligands VCAM-1 and fibronectin. In the present study, we focused on EMILIN-1 (Elastin-MIcrofibriL-INterfacer-1), an alternative VLA-4 ligand whose role has been so far reported only in non-hematological settings, by investigating: i) the distribution of EMILIN-1 in CLL-involved tissues; ii) the capability of EMILIN-1 to operate, via its globular C1q (gC1q) domain, as additional adhesion ligand in CLL; iii) the functional meaning of EMILIN-1 gC1q/VLA-4 interactions in CLL. EMILIN-1 is widely present in the CLL-involved areas of bone marrow biopsies (BMBs) without difference between CD49d negative and positive cases, displaying at least three different expression patterns: “fibrillar”, “dot-like” and “mixed”. The lack in CLL-BMB of neutrophil elastase, whose proteolytic activity degrades EMILIN-1 and impairs EMILIN-1 function, suggests full functional EMILIN-1 in CLL independently of its expression pattern. Functionally, EMILIN-1 gC1q domain promotes adhesion of CLL cells through specific interaction with VLA-4, and releases pro-survival signals for CLL cells, as demonstrated by enhanced ERK and AKT phosphorylation and impairment of in-vitro-induced apoptosis. EMILIN-1/VLA-4 interaction can efficiently contribute to the maintenance of the neoplastic clone in CLL

    CDKN1B mutation and copy number variation are associated with tumor aggressiveness in luminal breast cancer

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    The CDKN1B gene, encoding for the CDK inhibitor p27kip1, is mutated in defined human cancer subtypes, including breast, prostate carcinomas and small intestine neuroendocrine tumors. Lessons learned from small intestine neuroendocrine tumors suggest that CDKN1B mutations could be subclonal, raising the question of whether a deeper sequencing approach could lead to the identification of higher numbers of patients with mutations. Here, we addressed this question and analyzed human cancer biopsies from breast (n = 396), ovarian (n = 110) and head and neck squamous carcinoma (n = 202) patients, using an ultra-deep sequencing approach. Notwithstanding this effort, the mutation rate of CDKN1B remained substantially aligned with values from the literature, showing that essentially only hormone receptor-positive breast cancer displayed CDKN1B mutations in a relevant number of cases (3%). However, the analysis of copy number variation showed that another fraction of luminal breast cancer displayed loss (8%) or gain (6%) of the CDKN1B gene, further reinforcing the idea that the function of p27kip1 is important in this type of tumor. Intriguingly, an enrichment for CDKN1B alterations was found in samples from premenopausal luminal breast cancer patients (n = 227, 4%) and in circulating cell-free DNA from metastatic luminal breast cancer patients (n = 59, 8.5%), suggesting that CDKN1B alterations could correlate with tumor aggressiveness and/or occur later during disease progression. Notably, many of the identified somatic mutations resulted in p27kip1 protein truncation, leading to loss of most of the protein or of its C-terminal domain. Using a gene-editing approach in a luminal breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, we observed that the expression of p27kip1 truncating mutants that lose the C-terminal domains failed to rescue most of the phenotypes induced by CDKN1B gene knockout, indicating that the functions retained by the C-terminal portion are critical for its role as an oncosuppressor, at least in luminal breast cancer. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    Maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    Objectives: To evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This was a multinational retrospective cohort study including women with a singleton pregnancy and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, conducted in 72 centers in 22 different countries in Europe, the USA, South America, Asia and Australia, between 1 February 2020 and 30 April 2020. Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite measure of maternal mortality and morbidity, including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation and death. Results: In total, 388 women with a singleton pregnancy tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR of a nasopharyngeal swab and were included in the study. Composite adverse maternal outcome was observed in 47/388 (12.1%) women; 43 (11.1%) women were admitted to the ICU, 36 (9.3%) required mechanical ventilation and three (0.8%) died. Of the 388 women included in the study, 122 (31.4%) were still pregnant at the time of data analysis. Among the other 266 women, six (19.4% of the 31 women with first-trimester infection) had miscarriage, three (1.1%) had termination of pregnancy, six (2.3%) had stillbirth and 251 (94.4%) delivered a liveborn infant. The rate of preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was 26.3% (70/266). Of the 251 liveborn infants, 69/251 (27.5%) were admitted to the neonatal ICU, and there were five (2.0%) neonatal deaths. The overall rate of perinatal death was 4.1% (11/266). Only one (1/251, 0.4%) infant, born to a mother who tested positive during the third trimester, was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women is associated with a 0.8% rate of maternal mortality, but an 11.1% rate of admission to the ICU. The risk of vertical transmission seems to be negligible. © 2020 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology

    Hepatitis b virus-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis: Review of the literature and long-term follow-up analysis of 18 patients treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues from the italian study group of cryoglobulinemia (gisc)

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    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronic infection causes progressive liver damage, although about 20% of patients develop extrahepatic manifestations such as cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV). Clinical manifestations range from mild to moderate (purpura, asthenia, arthralgia) to severe (leg ulcers, peripheral neuropathy, glomerulonephritis, non-Hodgkin lymphoma). A comprehensive review of therapeutic options for HBV-related CV is lacking. Nucleos(t)ide analogues (NA) suppress HBV replication in 90\u2013100% of cases and induce clinical response in most patients with mild-to-moderate CV. Plasma exchange can be performed in patients with severe CV and should be considered in severe or life-threatening cases combined with high doses of corticosteroids and antiviral treatment. A cautious use of rituximab can be considered only in association with NA treatment in refractory cases. A review of the literature and an analysis of data collected by six centers of the Italian Group for the Study of Cryoglobulinemia on 18 HBV-CV nucleotide/nucleoside analogues (NAs)-treated patients were carried out

    A review on extrahepatic manifestations of chronic hepatitis c virus infection and the impact of direct-acting antiviral therapy

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    Extrahepatic manifestations are a feature of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In the course of chronic HCV infection, about 70% of patients have one or more extrahepatic manifestations. The latter are often the first and only clinical sign of infection. Experimental and clinical data support a causal association for many extrahepatic manifestations and HCV infection, which include mixed cryoglobulinemia, non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, neurological and psychiatric disease and other rheumatic diseases. All these extrahepatic conditions influence the morbidity, quality of life and mortality of HCV-infected patients. Currently, interferon-free therapeutic regimens with direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) offer the possibility of treatment to almost the entire infected population, irrespective of stage of cirrhosis and associated serious comorbidities, always maintaining a high efficacy and tolerability. Several studies have shown a close association between HCV clearance by DAAs and an improvement or reduction in the risk of extrahepatic manifestations. Patients with HCV after a sustained virologic response (SVR) by DAA treatment have a lower risk than non-responders of developing cryoglobulinemic vasculitis and B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Furthermore, the SVR by DAA also reduces the risk of acute coronary syndrome, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, and it improves atherosclerosis. HCV clearance by DAA also improves the quality of life and survival of patients with chronic HCV infection with associated extrahepatic diseases. Thus, DAAs should be initiated as early as possible in HCV patients with extrahepatic manifestations
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