512 research outputs found

    choosing the alternative

    Get PDF

    Physical, Mechanical and Elastic Properties of Chondrite Lithologies

    Get PDF
    This project measured the physical, mechanical, and elastic properties of a range of chondrite lithologies, a domain that was inadequately explored. The properties measured are porosity, bulk and grain density, seismic velocity (P and S waves), Unconfined Compressive Strength, Direct Shear Strength, Hardness (HLD)/Coefficient of Restitution, dynamic elastic moduli (Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Bulk modulus, Poisson’s ratio), Static Young’s Modulus, Proportional Limit, and Elemental Compositions. The complexity of measuring these properties accurately in small samples (ranging from 2.5 mm to 2 cm) is underscored, particularly due to the inherent weakness of some lithologies. Innovative adaptations of established methodologies, as elaborated in the Methods chapter, have been implemented to overcome these challenges and conform to ASTM International Standards. Concurrently, this study seeks to encourage the adoption of measuring standards within the planetary science community, fostering improved data cross-referencing and contextual interpretation of future asteroid samples. This study also examined correlations among meteorite properties, with the potential to predict properties that would normally require destructive testing. This study provides a database, contributing to an enhanced grasp of the deformational characteristics exhibited by meteorites and asteroids. This knowledge advancement facilitates modeling of asteroid geology and internal structures

    Bridging Chemotherapy: Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia

    Get PDF
    AbstractBridging therapy can be given after leukapheresis and before lymphodepletion during CAR-T cell manufacturing. The primary goal of bridging therapies is to prevent uncontrolled progression of the underlying disease during the manufacturing period before CAR-T cell infusion. Several studies indicate that a high tumour burden is associated with an increased risk of complications after CAR-T cell infusion (Cohen et al. 2019). Therefore, controlling the disease and even possibly decreasing the tumour burden is critical during the manufacturing period. The choice of bridging therapies is essential for the success of the procedure

    637. Targeting of Myeloid Leukemia by IL-10-Engineered Human CD4+ Tr1 Cells

    Get PDF
    T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells, characterized by the co-expression of CD49b and LAG-3 and the ability to secrete high amounts of IL-10, control immune responses by IL-10 and TGF-beta production and by killing of myeloid cells via a Granzyme B-dependent mechanism. Tr1 cells are induced in vitro in the presence of recombinant human IL-10 or tolerogenic dendritic cells secreting high amounts of IL-10 (DC-10). Proof-of-principle clinical trials suggest that Tr1 cells can modulate Graft-versus Host Disease (GvHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, their ability to mediate anti-leukemic activity or their effects of Graft versus Leukemia is largely unknown. We previously showed that enforced IL-10 expression converts human CD4+ T cells into Tr1-like (CD4IL-10) cells that suppress effector T cells in vitro and prevent xenogeneic-GvHD in humanized models. We now demonstrate that these CD4IL-10 cells selectively kill myeloid cell lines and myeloid blasts in vitro in HLA-class I-dependent but antigen-independent manner. Moreover, cytotoxic activity of CD4IL-10 cells is Granzyme B-dependent, is specific for CD13+ cells, and requires CD54 and CD112 expression on target cell lines or primary leukemic blast. Adoptive transfer of CD4IL-10 cells in humanized models mediates direct anti-leukemic activity, and does not compromise the anti-leukemic effect of allogeneic T cells while inhibits xeno-GvHD. These findings provide a strong rationale for designing personalized immunotherapy approaches using CD4IL-10 cells after allo-HSCT to cure myeloid malignancies

    MRD in Venetoclax-Based Treatment for AML: Does it Really Matter?

    Get PDF
    The prognosis of newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia is still unfavorable in the majority of cases within the intermediate and mainly adverse genetic risk group but also in a considerable fraction of favorable-risk patients, mainly due to recurrence of disease after complete remission achievement or, less frequently, primary refractoriness. Besides genetic classification at diagnosis, post-treatment prognostic factors include measurable residual disease evaluation in patients in complete remission and in most cases measurable residual disease (MRD) positivity predicts hematologic relapse potentially allowing early therapeutic intervention. Currently, the most commonly used methods for detection of minimal residual disease are multiparameter flow cytometry and quantitative PCR, applicable to around 90% and 50% of patients, respectively. In addition, in > 90% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, molecular aberrations can be identified by next-generation sequencing, a technology that is widely used in clinical practice for the initial mutational screening at the time of diagnosis but more often, for MRD detection because its flexibility allows almost every mutated gene to be used as an MRD marker. Threshold levels of residual disease and correlation with outcome have been thoroughly studied and established in younger patients treated with intensive induction and consolidation chemotherapy as well as after allogeneic transplantation. Yet, experience on MRD monitoring and interpretation in patients treated with low-intensity regimens, including new agents, is still limited. The updated armamentarium of anti-leukemic agents includes the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax, which demonstrated good tolerability, high response rates, and prolonged overall survival when combined with hypomethylating agents or low dose cytarabine in patients considered elderly/”unfit” to tolerate intensive regimens. Although remissions with negative minimal residual disease clearly translated into improved outcomes after intensive treatments, data supporting the same evidence in patients receiving low-intensity venetoclax-based treatments are not still consolidated. We here review and discuss more recent data on the minimal residual disease interpretation and role in AML patients treated with venetoclax-based combinations

    3D Models of Surrogate Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow Microenvironments: Insights on Disease Pathophysiology and Patient-Specific Response to Drugs

    Get PDF
    Multiple Myeloma (MM) develops almost exclusively within the Bone Marrow (BM), highlighting the critical role of the microenvironment in conditioning disease progression and resistance to drugs. Indeed, while the therapeutic armamentarium for MM has significantly improved over the past 20 years, the disease remains ultimately incurable. This failure may depend on the high phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of MM, but also on the paucity and inadequacy of two-dimensional (2D) conventional preclinical models in reproducing MM within the BM. In the present paper, we provide a brief updated overview on MM BM microenvironment. We then discuss newly developed preclinical models mimicking MM/microenvironment interactions, including three-dimensional (3D), gel-based, in vitro models and a novel ex vivo system of isolated tumor and stromal cells cultured in bioreactor. Potential applications of each model, relative to investigation of MM pathogenic mechanisms and prediction of the best drug/combination for each individual patient will be also evaluated

    The Suicide Gene Therapy Challenge: How to Improve a Successful Gene Therapy Approach

    Get PDF
    The transfer of a suicide gene into donor lymphocytes to control alloreactivity in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) represents the widest clinical application of T-cell based gene transfer, as shown by more than 100 patients treated worldwide to date, several phase I–II studies completed, and a registrative phase III study, sponsored by a biotech firm, about to begin. In this mini-review, we will summarize the clinical results obtained to date, and attempt to identify the steps envisaged to optimize the suicide gene therapy approach

    Immunomodulatory drugs in the context of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation associate with reduced pro-tumor T cell subsets in multiple myeloma

    Get PDF
    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) are effective therapeutics for multiple myeloma (MM), where in different clinical settings they exert their function both directly on MM cells and indirectly by modulating immune cell subsets, although with not completely defined mechanisms. Here we studied the role of IMiDs in the context of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the T cell subset distribution in the bone marrow of newly diagnosed MM patients. We found that after transplantation pro-tumor Th17-Th1 and Th22 cells and their related cytokines were lower in patients treated with IMiDs during induction chemotherapy compared to untreated patients. Of note, lower levels of IL-17, IL-22, and related IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-23 in the bone marrow sera correlated with treatment with IMiDs and favorable clinical outcome. Collectively, our results suggest a novel anti-inflammatory role for IMiDs in MM
    • …