144,517 research outputs found

    Effect of tissue hydraulic conductivity on oxygen and glucose delivery.

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    (A) Oxygen and (B) glucose concentration profiles for base case parameter values (Eq S39, see S1 Text) of tissue hydraulic conductivity Kv increased by a factor of 10 for small (őĪ0 = 3.5) and large (őĪ0 = 20) granulomas.</p

    Coordinating virus research: The Virus Infectious Disease Ontology

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    The COVID-19 pandemic prompted immense work on the investigation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Rapid, accurate, and consistent interpretation of generated data is thereby of fundamental concern. Ontologies‚Äď‚Äďstructured, controlled, vocabularies‚Äď‚Äďare designed to support consistency of interpretation, and thereby to prevent the development of data silos. This paper describes how ontologies are serving this purpose in the COVID-19 research domain, by following principles of the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) Foundry and by reusing existing ontologies such as the Infectious Disease Ontology (IDO) Core, which provides terminological content common to investigations of all infectious diseases. We report here on the development of an IDO extension, the Virus Infectious Disease Ontology (VIDO), a reference ontology covering viral infectious diseases. We motivate term and definition choices, showcase reuse of terms from existing OBO ontologies, illustrate how ontological decisions were motivated by relevant life science research, and connect VIDO to the Coronavirus Infectious Disease Ontology (CIDO). We next use terms from these ontologies to annotate selections from life science research on SARS-CoV-2, highlighting how ontologies employing a common upper-level vocabulary may be seamlessly interwoven. Finally, we outline future work, including bacteria and fungus infectious disease reference ontologies currently under development, then cite uses of VIDO and CIDO in host-pathogen data analytics, electronic health record annotation, and ontology conflict-resolution projects

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    A causal discovery exploration of determinants of social isolation

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    Singapore Ministry of Education (MOE) under its Academic Research Fund Tier 3; Ngee Ann Kongs

    Multivariable logistic regression model, whole cohort, goodness of fit.

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    Multivariable logistic regression model, whole cohort, goodness of fit.</p

    COVID-19 admissions, wave-specific mortality and timeline of key treatments and vaccination.

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    COVID-19 admissions, wave-specific mortality and timeline of key treatments and vaccination.</p

    Wave 3 vaccination status counts and percents.

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    BackgroundA COVID-19 hospital guideline was implemented across all 18 acute hospitals in Wales in March 2020, promoting ward management of COVID pneumonitis and data collected across the first 3 Waves of the pandemic (Wave 1 March 1st 2020 to November 1st 2020, Wave 2 November 2st 2020 to February 21st 2021 and Wave 3 June 1st 2021 to December 14th 2021). The aim of this paper is to compare outcomes for patients by admission setting and type of ventilatory support given, with a particular focus on CPAP therapy.MethodsThis is a retrospective observational study of those aged over 18 admitted to hospital with community acquired COVID-19 between March 2020 and December 2021. The outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality. Univariate logistic regression models were used to compare crude outcomes across the waves. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess outcomes by different settings and treatments after adjusting for Wave, age, sex, co-morbidity and deprivation.ResultsOf the 7,803 records collected, 5,887 (75.4%) met the inclusion criteria. Analysis of those cases identified statistically significant outcome improvements across the waves for all patients combined (Waves 1 to 3: 31.5% to 18.8%, pConclusionsThere were successive reductions in mortality in inpatients over the three Waves reflecting new treatments and better management of complications. Mortality for those requiring CPAP was similar in respiratory wards and ICUs after adjusting for differences in their respective patient populations.</div

    Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status and prevalence of teacher-reported health disorders among Canadian kindergarten children

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    BackgroundThe evidence on the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) and health disorders in young children is scarce. This study examined the prevalence of health disorders in Canadian kindergarten (5‚Äď6‚ÄČyears old) children in relation to neighborhood SES in 12/13 Canadian jurisdictions.MethodsData on child development at school entry for an eligible 1,372,980 children out of the total population of 1,435,428 children from 2004 to 2020, collected using the Early Development Instrument (EDI), were linked with neighborhood sociodemographic data from the 2006 Canadian Census and the 2005 Taxfiler for 2,058 neighborhoods. We examined the relationship using linear regressions. Children‚Äôs HD included special needs, functional impairments limiting a child‚Äôs ability to participate in classroom activities, and diagnosed conditions.ResultsThe neighborhood prevalence of health disorders across Canada ranged from 1.8 to 46.6%, with a national average of 17.3%. The combined prevalence of health disorders was 16.4%, as 225,711 children were identified as having at least one health disorder. Results of an unadjusted linear regression showed a significant association between neighborhood-level SES and prevalence of health disorders (F(1, 2051)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ433.28, p‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ0.001), with an R2 of 0.17. When province was added to the model, the R2 increased to 0.40 (F(12, 2040)‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ115.26, p‚ÄČ&lt;‚ÄČ0.001). The association was strongest in Newfoundland &amp; Labrador and weakest in Ontario.ConclusionOur study demonstrated that the prevalence of health disorders among kindergarten children was higher in lower SES neighborhoods and varied by jurisdiction in Canada, which has implications for practice and resource allocation
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