31 research outputs found

    Ferroelectricity in metal-organic frameworks: characterization and mechanisms

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    Ferroelectric metal–organic frameworks are emerging as an exciting field of research and have witnessed great progress in the last decade. In this contribution, we briefly discuss ferroelectricity and its means of demonstration. Three mechanisms that lead to ferroelectricity are identified and critically discussed. On the basis of the shortcomings present in the literature, we present a protocol for the study of ferroelectricity in MOF compounds.ChemE/Catalysis Engineerin

    Impact of flow-induced disturbances during synthesis on the photophysical properties of naphthalene diimide covalent organic frameworks

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    Flow-induced disturbances were applied during the synthesis of a naphthalene diimide covalent organic framework (NDI-COF), which resulted in different COF polymer networks. We discovered that a high intensity of stirring resulted in more aggregated structures on both the micro- and nano-length scale. Subsequently, these structures absorbed light over longer wavelengths due to a relatively higher contribution of intermolecular interactions between the NDI-segments.Architecture and the Built EnvironmentNovel Aerospace MaterialsChemE/Catalysis Engineerin

    Unraveling a two-step oxidation mechanism in electrochemical Cu-MOF synthesis

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    To employ the full potential of electrochemical (ec) synthesis to grow metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) in more complex organizations at the mesoscale, it is vital to understand the underlying crystallization reaction pathway. For the MOF most typically grown electrochemically, CuBTC, we systematically investigated the role of oxygen species in the synthesis.Chemical EngineeringApplied Science

    Selective recovery and separation of rare earth elements by organophosphorus modified MIL-101(Cr)

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    Development of state-of-the-art selective adsorbent materials for recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) is essential for their sustainable usage. In this study, a metal-organic framework (MOF), MIL-101(Cr), was synthesized and post-synthetically modified with optimised loading of the organophosphorus compounds tributyl phosphate (TBP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA, HDEHP) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid (Cyanex®-272). The materials were characterized and their adsorption efficiency towards Nd3+, Gd3+ and Er3+ from aqueous solutions was investigated. The MOF derivatives demonstrated an increase in adsorption capacity for Er3+ at optimal pH 5.5 in the order of MIL-101-T50 (37.2 mg g−1) < MIL-101-C50 (48.9 mg g−1) < MIL-101-H50 (57.5 mg g−1). The exceptional selectivity of the materials for Er3+ against transition metal ions was over 90%, and up to 95% in the mixtures with rare earth ions. MIL-101-C50 and MIL-101-H50 demonstrated better chemical stability than MIL-101-T50 over 3 adsorption−desorption cycles. The adsorption mechanism was described by the formation of coordinative complexes between the functional groups of modifiers and Er3+ ions.Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.ChemE/Catalysis Engineerin

    Pillared cobalt metal-organic frameworks act as chromatic polarizers

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    The ease with which molecular building blocks can be ordered in metal–organic frameworks is an invaluable asset for many potential applications. In this work, we exploit this inherent order to produce chromatic polarizers based on visible-light linear dichroism via cobalt paddlewheel chromophores.ChemE/Catalysis EngineeringChemE/Delft Ingenious Desig

    Contact Forces between Single Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Gas-Phase Applications and Processes

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    In this work we present a comprehensive experimental study to determine the contact forces between individual metal oxide nanoparticles in the gas-phase using atomic force microscopy. In addition, we determined the amount of physisorbed water for each type of particle surface. By comparing our results with mathematical models of the interaction forces, we could demonstrate that classical continuum models of van der Waals and capillary forces alone cannot sufficiently describe the experimental findings. Rather, the discrete nature of the molecules has to be considered, which leads to ordering at the interface and the occurrence of solvation forces. We demonstrate that inclusion of solvation forces in the model leads to quantitative agreement with experimental data and that tuning of the molecular order by addition of isopropanol vapor allows us to control the interaction forces between the nanoparticles.ChemE/Product and Process EngineeringChemE/Catalysis Engineerin

    Rotational dynamics of linkers in metal–organic frameworks

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    Among the numerous fascinating properties of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), their rotational dynamics is perhaps one of the most intriguing, with clear consequences for adsorption and separation of molecules, as well as for optical and mechanical properties. A closer look at the rotational mobility in MOF linkers reveals that it is not only a considerably widespread phenomenon, but also a fairly diverse one. Still, the impact of these dynamics is often understated. In this review, we address the various mechanisms of linker rotation reported in the growing collection of literature, followed by a highlight of the methods currently used in their study, and we conclude with the impacts that such dynamics have on existing and future applications.ChemE/Catalysis Engineerin

    Metal–organic frameworks as heterogeneous photocatalysts: Advantages and challenges

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    The use of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) as heterogeneous photocatalysts is critically reviewed. First we revisit the general assumption of MOFs behaving truly as semiconductors, demonstrating that such semiconducting behaviour only occurs in a very limited subset of materials. Further, the main approaches for efficient light harvesting and active site engineering in MOF-based photocatalysts are discussed. Finally, the main advantages of MOFs as photocatalysts and the challenges that need to be addressed in order to improve catalytic performance are evaluated.ChemE/Catalysis EngineeringApplied Science

    Trajectory Tracking for Robotic Arms with Input Saturation and only Position Measurements

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    This paper proposes a passivity-based control approach that addresses the trajectory tracking problem for a class of mechanical systems that comprises a broad range of robotic arms. The resulting controllers can be naturally saturated and do not require velocity measurements. Moreover, the proposed methodology does not require the implementation of observers, and the structure of the closed-loop system permits the construction of a Lyapunov function, which eases the convergence analysis. To corroborate the effectiveness of the methodology, we perform experiments with the Philips Experimental Robot Arm. Accepted Author ManuscriptLearning & Autonomous Contro

    Structure-Property Relationship of Piezoelectric Properties in Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks: A Computational Study

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    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of nanoporous crystalline materials with very high structural tunability. They possess a very low dielectric permittivity ϵr due to their porosity and hence are favorable for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Even though they have huge potential as piezoelectric materials, a detailed analysis and structure-property relationship of the piezoelectric properties in MOFs are lacking so far. This work focuses on a class of cubic non-centrosymmetric MOFs, namely, zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) to rationalize how the variation of different building blocks of the structure, that is, metal node and linker substituents affect the piezoelectric constants. The piezoelectric tensor for the ZIFs is computed from ab initio theoretical methods. From the calculations, we analyze the different contributions to the final piezoelectric constant d14, namely, the clamped ion (e140) and the internal strain (e14int) contributions and the mechanical properties. For the studied ZIFs, even though e14 (e140 + e14int) is similar for all ZIFs, the resultant piezoelectric coefficient d14 calculated from piezoelectric constant e14 and elastic compliance constant s44 varies significantly among the different structures. It is the largest for CdIF-1 (Cd2+ and -CH3 linker substituent). This is mainly due to the higher elasticity or flexibility of the framework. Interestingly, the magnitude of d14 for CdIF-1 is higher than II-VI inorganic piezoelectrics and of a similar magnitude as the quintessential piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride. ChemE/Catalysis Engineerin
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