4,628 research outputs found

    Differential Geometrical Formulation of Gauge Theory of Gravity

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    Differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity is studied in this paper. The quantum gauge theory of gravity which is proposed in the references hep-th/0109145 and hep-th/0112062 is formulated completely in the framework of traditional quantum field theory. In order to study the relationship between quantum gauge theory of gravity and traditional quantum gravity which is formulated in curved space, it is important to find the differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity. We first give out the correspondence between quantum gauge theory of gravity and differential geometry. Then we give out differential geometric formulation of quantum gauge theory of gravity.Comment: 10 pages, no figur

    Electronic structure near an impurity and terrace on the surface of a 3-dimensional topological insulator

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    Motivated by recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on surfaces of Bi1x_{1-x}Sbx_{x'}\cite{yazdanistm,gomesstm} and Bi2_2Te3_3,\cite{kaptunikstm,xuestm} we theoretically study the electronic structure of a 3-dimensional (3D) topological insulator in the presence of a local impurity or a domain wall on its surface using a 3D lattice model. While the local density of states (LDOS) oscillates significantly in space at energies above the bulk gap, the oscillation due to the in-gap surface Dirac fermions are very weak. The extracted modulation wave number as a function of energy satisfies the Dirac dispersion for in-gap energies and follows the border of the bulk continuum above the bulk gap. We have also examined analytically the effects of the defects by using a pure Dirac fermion model for the surface states and found that the LDOS decays asymptotically faster at least by a factor of 1/r than that in normal metals, consistent with the results obtained from our lattice model.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Storage and retrieval of continuous-variable polarization-entangled cluster states in atomic ensembles

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    We present a proposal for storing and retrieving a continuous-variable quadripartite polarization-entangled cluster state, using macroscopic atomic ensembles in a magnetic field. The Larmor precession of the atomic spins leads to a symmetry between the atomic canonical operators. In this scheme, each of the four spatially separated pulses passes twice through the respective ensemble in order to map the polarization-entangled cluster state onto the long-lived atomic ensembles. The stored state can then be retrieved by another four read-out pulses, each crossing the respective ensemble twice. By calculating the variances, we analyzed the fidelities of the storage and retrieval, and our scheme is feasible under realistic experimental conditions.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figure

    Flank gland-secreted putative chemosignals pertaining to photoperiod, endocrine states, and sociosexual behavior in golden hamsters

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    Behavioral studies have shown that flank glands are involved in chemical communication in golden hamsters Mesocricetus auratus but little chemical analysis has been conducted on volatiles arising from these glands. Using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, we detected compounds from the flank glands of males, only eight of which were also produced in females. Based on these chemical data we performed a number of further experiments. By manipulating light we found that males exposed to short-photoperiods developed smaller flank glands than those exposed to long-photoperiods. Six flank gland volatiles reduced in relative abundance, which possibly coded for reproductive status of males of this seasonally breeding hamster species. Through dyadic encounters, we were able to induce the formation of dominant-subordinate relationships and show that two glandular compounds became high in relative abundance and may function as dominance pheromones. Castration eliminated all male-specific compounds resulting from flank glands, but bilateral ovariectomies only affected one compound in females. Once these ovariectomized females were treated with testosterone, their glandular compounds resembled those of males, suggesting these compounds are under the main control of androgen. Two female putative pheromones, tetradecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid, were used in binary choice tests and were both found to attract males over females. Applying a solution of these pheromone compounds to adult males also suppressed their agonistic behavior

    Expression of VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain under control of the ats1A promoter in tobacco

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    The VP60 gene from rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) YL strain in Northeast of China, under control of the ats1A promoter from Rubisco small subunit genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, was introduced into the transfer deoxyribonucleic acid (T-DNA) region of plant transfer vector pCAMBIA1300 and transferred to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Petit Havanna SR1) with Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reverse transcription(RT) and -PCR analysis of the transformed tobacco plants confirmed the integration of the VP60 gene copy into the plant DNA and VP60 gene transcription produced. Western blot analysis revealed that the VP60 protein was expressed in tobacco under control of ats1A promoter.Key words: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), VP60 protein, ats1A promoter, plant-derived vaccine


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    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C13H15NO2, the main product of a photoreaction, contains two crystallographically independent mol­ecules. In both mol­ecules, the conformation of the seven-membered ring is twist sofa and that of the five-membered rings is envelope. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak inter­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds