416 research outputs found

    Solution to spectroscopy blog challenge

    Get PDF

    Characterization of high molecular weight compounds in urban atmospheric particles

    No full text
    International audienceThe chemical nature of a large fraction of ambient organic aerosol particles is not known. However, high molecular weight compounds (often named humic-like substances) have recently been detected by several authors and these compounds seem to account for a significant fraction of the total organic aerosol mass. Due to the unknown chemical structure of these compounds a quantification as well as a determination of their molecular weight is difficult. In this paper we investigate water soluble humic-like substances in ambient urban aerosol using size exclusion chromatography-UV spectroscopy and laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. A careful method evaluation shows that both methods complement each other and that both are needed to learn more about the molecular weight distribution and the concentration of humic-like substances. An upper molecular weight limit of humic-like substances of about 700 Da and a concentration of 0.2?1.8 µg/m3 air can be estimated corresponding to 8?33% of the total organic carbon for an urban background site

    Effect of organic compounds on nanoparticle formation in diluted diesel exhaust

    Get PDF
    International audienceThe nucleation of nanoparticles in the exhaust of a modern light-duty diesel vehicle was investigated on a chassis dynamometer. This laboratory study is focused on the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on nucleation of volatile nanoparticles. Different organic compounds were added to the dilution air of the particle sampling under different sampling conditions. Sample temperature and relative sample humidity were varied in a wide range. The number size distribution of the particles was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and showed significant differences in response to the added organic compounds. While the nucleation mode particles showed a large variation in concentration, the accumulation mode particles remained unchanged for all compounds. Depending on the functional group, organic compounds were capable of initiating and increasing (alcohols and toluene) or decreasing (acetone, aniline, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)) nucleation mode particles. Short volatile aliphatic hydrocarbons (hexane and cyclohexane) turned out to be without effect on nucleation of nanoparticles. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed

    Characterization of aerosol plumes in nanosecond laser ablation of molecular solids at atmospheric pressure

    Get PDF
    Ablation of molecular solids with pulsed ultraviolet lasers at atmospheric pressure is an important process in (bio-)organic mass spectrometry. Of practical importance for analytical sampling and analysis are the plume formation and expansion. Plumes formed by atmospheric-pressure laser ablation of anthracene and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) were studied by light scattering imaging, which showed significant material release in the form of aerosols. The monitored plume expansion dynamics could be fitted to the drag-force model, yielding initial plume velocities of 150m/s for anthracene and 43m/s for DHB. While the angle of incidence does not affect the plume direction and propagation, a large dependence of the plume-expansion velocity on the laser pulse energy could be found, which is limited at atmospheric pressure by the onset of plasma shielding. With respect to analytical applications, the efficiency of sampling of the laser ablation products by a capillary could be experimentally visualize

    Probing the microenvironmental conditions for induction of superficial zone protein expression

    Get PDF
    SummaryObjectiveTo determine the in vitro conditions which promote expression of superficial zone protein (SZP).MethodsChondrocytes from 6-month-old calves were expanded in monolayer culture and the expression of SZP in alginate bead and monolayer culture was quantified with quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunostaining. The effect of oxygen tension on SZP expression was determined by qRT-PRC analysis of cells cultured in two dimension (2D) and three dimension (3D) under hypoxic (1% pO2) or normoxic (21% pO2) conditions. Finally, to examine the effect of cyclic tensile strain on expression of SZP in 2D and 3D cultures, chondrocytes encapsulated in alginate beams or seeded on type I collagen coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chambers were subjected to 5% strain at 1 Hz, 2 h/day for 4 days or 2 h at the fourth day of culture and mRNA levels were quantified.ResultsBovine chondrocytes in monolayer showed a drastic decrease in SZP expression, similar in trend to the commonly reported downregulation of type II collagen (Col2). Chondrocytes embedded in alginate beads for 4 days re-expressed SZP but not Col2. SZP expression was higher under normoxic conditions whereas Col2 was upregulated only in alginate beads under hypoxic conditions. Cyclic mechanical strain showed a tendency to upregulate mRNA levels of SZP.ConclusionsA microenvironment encompassing a soft encapsulation material and 21% oxygen is sufficient for fibroblastic chondrocytes to re-express SZP. These results serve as a guideline for the design of stratified engineered articular cartilage and suggest that microenvironmental cues (oxygen tension level) strongly influence the pattern of SZP expression in vivo

    Spectroscopy blog challenge

    Get PDF

    How to Deal with Weak Interactions in Noncovalent Complexes Analyzed by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry: Cyclopeptidic Inhibitors of the Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1-STAT6

    Get PDF
    Mass spectrometry, and especially electrospray ionization, is now an efficient tool to study noncovalent interactions between proteins and inhibitors. It is used here to study the interaction of some weak inhibitors with the NCoA-1/STAT6 protein with KD values in the μM range. High signal intensities corresponding to some nonspecific electrostatic interactions between NCoA-1 and the oppositely charged inhibitors were observed by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry, due to the use of high ligand concentrations. Diverse strategies have already been developed to deal with nonspecific interactions, such as controlled dissociation in the gas phase, mathematical modeling, or the use of a reference protein to monitor the appearance of nonspecific complexes. We demonstrate here that this last methodology, validated only in the case of neutral sugar–protein interactions, i.e., where dipole–dipole interactions are crucial, is not relevant in the case of strong electrostatic interactions. Thus, we developed a novel strategy based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) measurements in a competitive assay with readout by nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry. IC50 values determined by MS were finally converted into dissociation constants that showed very good agreement with values determined in the liquid phase using a fluorescence polarization assay

    Tumor type M2-pyruvate-kinase levels in pleural fluid versus plasma in cancer patients: a further tool to define the need for invasive procedures

    Get PDF
    Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic problem and a challenge to the thoracic surgeon. The analysis of serum and body fluids for tumor markers is an established diagnostic procedure. Among various markers, tumors are linked to the overexpression of a glycolytic isoenzyme, M2-pyruvate-kinase (M2-PK). This preliminary study evaluated this enzyme as a tumor marker to differentiate malignant from benign pleural effusion

    Gauging circadian variation in ketamine metabolism by real-time breath analysis

    Get PDF
    The time-of-day of drug application is an important factor in maximizing efficacy and minimizing toxicity. Real-time in vivo mass spectrometric breath analysis of mice was deployed to investigate time-of-day variation in ketamine metabolism. Different production rates of ketamine metabolites, including the recently described anti-depressant hydroxynorketamine, were found in opposite circadian phases. Thus, breath analysis has potential as a rapid and 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) conforming screening method to estimate the time-dependence of drug metabolism

    Changes in serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, OPG, RANKL and their correlation with radiographic and clinical assessment in fragility fractures and high energy fractures

    Get PDF
    Stages of bone turnover during fracture repair can be assessed employing serum markers of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, inflammatory cytokines, clinical evaluation and imaging instruments. Our study compare the fracture healing process in fragility fractures and high energy fractures by evaluating serum changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB ligand (RANKL) in combination with radiographic (Radiographic Union Scale for Tibial fractures, RUST) and clinical (Lower extremity measure, LEM) assessments. We enrolled 56 patients divided into four corresponding groups: group A with high energy trauma fracture (tibial/femoral shaft); group B with low energy trauma fracture (femoral fractures); healthy (control A) and osteoporotic subjects (control B). Blood samples were collected before surgery (T0) and after 10 weeks (T10). Serum concentrations of IL-6, TNF-α, RANKL and OPG were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Our results show that RANKL values are significantly higher at T10 than at T0 in low energy trauma fractures (group B). OPG is significantly lower in each control group than that of the respective fractured group and its concentration at T0 and at T10 is significantly lower in high than in low energy fractures. RANKL/OPG ratio is significantly higher in both controls than in fractured groups, and significantly increases after 10 weeks. IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations significantly decrease during fracture healing and are higher in high (group A) than in low energy fractures (group B). Significant differences were also found in both RUST score and LEM between groups A and B. Changes in TNF-α and IL-6 levels correlate with RUST and LEM in fragility and high energy fractures, while RANKL/OPG ratio is associated with these clinical parameters only in fragility fractures. These findings suggest that serum levels of IL-6, TNF-α, RANKL and OPG might be used to monitor the stages of fracture repair. Further studies will be needed to confirm the role of these cytokines in fracture repair
    • …