4,789 research outputs found

    Modelling the KIC8462852 light curves : compatibility of the dips and secular dimming with an exocomet interpretation

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    This paper shows how the dips and secular dimming in the KIC8462852 light curve can originate in circumstellar material distributed around a single elliptical orbit (e.g. exocomets). The expected thermal emission and wavelength dependent dimming is derived for different orbital parameters and geometries, including dust that is optically thick to stellar radiation, and for a size distribution of dust with realistic optical properties. We first consider dust distributed evenly around the orbit, then show how to derive its uneven distribution from the optical light curve and to predict light curves at different wavelengths. The fractional luminosity of an even distribution is approximately the level of dimming times stellar radius divided by distance from the star at transit. Non-detection of dust thermal emission for KIC8462852 thus provides a lower limit on the transit distance to complement the 0.6 au upper limit imposed by 0.4 d dips. Unless the dust distribution is optically thick, the putative 16 per cent century-long secular dimming must have disappeared before the WISE 12 mum measurement in 2010, and subsequent 4.5 mum observations require transits at >0.05 au. However, self-absorption of thermal emission removes these constraints for opaque dust distributions. The passage of dust clumps through pericentre is predicted to cause infrared brightening lasting tens of days and dimming during transit, such that total flux received decreases at wavelengths <5 mum, but increases to potentially detectable levels at longer wavelengths. We suggest that lower dimming levels than seen for KIC8462852 are more common in the Galactic population and may be detected in future transit surveys

    XWeB: the XML Warehouse Benchmark

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    With the emergence of XML as a standard for representing business data, new decision support applications are being developed. These XML data warehouses aim at supporting On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) operations that manipulate irregular XML data. To ensure feasibility of these new tools, important performance issues must be addressed. Performance is customarily assessed with the help of benchmarks. However, decision support benchmarks do not currently support XML features. In this paper, we introduce the XML Warehouse Benchmark (XWeB), which aims at filling this gap. XWeB derives from the relational decision support benchmark TPC-H. It is mainly composed of a test data warehouse that is based on a unified reference model for XML warehouses and that features XML-specific structures, and its associate XQuery decision support workload. XWeB's usage is illustrated by experiments on several XML database management systems

    Implementing health promotion programmes in schools: a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom

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    Background: Schools have long been viewed as a good setting in which to encourage healthy lifestyles amongst children, and schools in many countries aspire to more comprehensive, integrated approaches to health promotion. Recent reviews have identified evidence of the effects of school health promotion on children’s and young people’s health. However, understanding of how such programmes can be implemented in schools is more limited. Methods: We conducted a realist review to identify the conditions and actions which lead to the successful implementation of health promotion programmes in schools. We used the international literature to develop programme theories which were then tested using evaluations of school health promotion programmes conducted in the United Kingdom (UK). Iterative searching and screening was conducted to identify sources and clear criteria applied for appraisal of included sources. A review advisory group comprising educational and public health practitioners, commissioners, and academics was established at the outset. Results: In consultation with the review advisory group, we developed four programme theories (preparing for implementation, initial implementation, embedding into routine practice, adaptation and evolution); these were then refined using the UK evaluations in the review. This enabled us to identify transferable mechanisms and enabling and constraining contexts and investigate how the operation of mechanisms differed in different contexts. We also identified steps that should be taken at a senior level in relation to preparing for implementation (which revolved around negotiation about programme delivery) and initial implementation (which centred on facilitation, support, and reciprocity—the latter for both programme deliverers and pupils). However, the depth and rigour of evidence concerning embedding into routine practice and adaptation and evolution was limited. Conclusions: Our findings provide guidance for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health promotion in schools and identify the areas where further research is needed

    Особливості розв’язку задач параметричної ідентифікації динамічних систем в умовах інтервальної невизначеності

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    Розглянуто задачу параметричної ідентифікації лінійних динамічних систем методами аналізу інтервальних даних. Показано, що у випадку врахування початкових інтервальних наближень дискретних значень прогнозованої характеристики дана задача є задачею розв’язування інтервальної системи нелінійних алгебричних рівнянь. Досліджено особливості формування та властивості розв’язку таких систем.Рассмотрена задача параметрической идентификации линейных динамических систем методами анализа интервальных данных. Показано, что в случае учета начальных интервальных приближений дискретных значений прогнозированной характеристики, данная задача есть задачей решения интервальной системы нелинейных алгебраических уравнений; исследованы особенности формирования и свойства решения таких систем.The problem of parameter identification of linear dynamic systems by methods of analysis of interval data is considered. It is shown that in the case of taking into account the initial interval approximations of discrete values of the predicted characteristics, this problem is the problem of solving interval system of nonlinear algebraic equations

    Optimisation of variables for studying dilepton transverse momentum distributions at hadron colliders

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    In future measurements of the dilepton (Z/γZ/\gamma^*) transverse momentum, \Qt, at both the Tevatron and LHC, the achievable bin widths and the ultimate precision of the measurements will be limited by experimental resolution rather than by the available event statistics. In a recent paper the variable \at, which corresponds to the component of \Qt\ that is transverse to the dilepton thrust axis, has been studied in this regard. In the region, \Qt\ << 30 GeV, \at\ has been shown to be less susceptible to experimental resolution and efficiency effects than the \Qt. Extending over all \Qt, we now demonstrate that dividing \at\ (or \Qt) by the measured dilepton invariant mass further improves the resolution. In addition, we propose a new variable, \phistarEta, that is determined exclusively from the measured lepton directions; this is even more precisely determined experimentally than the above variables and is similarly sensitive to the \Qt. The greater precision achievable using such variables will enable more stringent tests of QCD and tighter constraints on Monte Carlo event generator tunes.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures, 2 table

    Collisional Velocities and Rates in Resonant Planetesimal Belts

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    We consider a belt of small bodies around a star, captured in one of the external or 1:1 mean-motion resonances with a massive perturber. The objects in the belt collide with each other. Combining methods of celestial mechanics and statistical physics, we calculate mean collisional velocities and collisional rates, averaged over the belt. The results are compared to collisional velocities and rates in a similar, but non-resonant belt, as predicted by the particle-in-a-box method. It is found that the effect of the resonant lock on the velocities is rather small, while on the rates more substantial. The collisional rates between objects in an external resonance are by about a factor of two higher than those in a similar belt of objects not locked in a resonance. For Trojans under the same conditions, the collisional rates may be enhanced by up to an order of magnitude. Our results imply, in particular, shorter collisional lifetimes of resonant Kuiper belt objects in the solar system and higher efficiency of dust production by resonant planetesimals in debris disks around other stars.Comment: 31 pages, 11 figures (some of them heavily compressed to fit into arxiv-maximum filesize), accepted for publication at "Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy

    Classical-Quantum Coexistence: a `Free Will' Test

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    Von Neumann's statistical theory of quantum measurement interprets the instantaneous quantum state and derives instantaneous classical variables. In realty, quantum states and classical variables coexist and can influence each other in a time-continuous way. This has been motivating investigations since longtime in quite different fields from quantum cosmology to optics as well as in foundations. Different theories (mean-field, Bohm, decoherence, dynamical collapse, continuous measurement, hybrid dynamics, e.t.c.) emerged for what I call `coexistence of classical continuum with quantum'. I apply to these theories a sort of `free will' test to distinguish `tangible' classical variables useful for causal control from useless ones.Comment: 7pp, based on talk at Conf. on Emergent Quantum Mechanics, Heinz von Foerster Congress (Vienna University, Nov 11-13, 2011
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